D Federal Agencies That Provide Funding Opportunities

The following material is a beginner's guide to some of the federal agencies that support crosscutting research, education, and training having both scientific and mathematical components. It is not intended to be an exhaustive list of federal agencies or their programs.

AGENCIES SUPPORTING GENERAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH

National Institutes of Health

<www.nih.gov>

Offices, Institutes, and Centers

The NIH consists of institutes and centers funded independently by Congress and centrally administered by the Office of the Director:

National Cancer Institute (NCI),

National Eye Institute (NEI),

National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI),

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI),

National Institute on Aging (NIA),

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA),

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID),

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMSD),

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD),

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD),

National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR),

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDKD),

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA),

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS),

National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS),

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH),

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS),

National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR),

National Library of Medicine (NLM),

National Center for Research Resources (NCRR),

John E. Fogarty International Center (FIC),

Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center (CC),

Center for Information Technology (CIT), and

Center for Scientific Review (CSR, formerly DRG).



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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences D Federal Agencies That Provide Funding Opportunities The following material is a beginner's guide to some of the federal agencies that support crosscutting research, education, and training having both scientific and mathematical components. It is not intended to be an exhaustive list of federal agencies or their programs. AGENCIES SUPPORTING GENERAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH National Institutes of Health <www.nih.gov> Offices, Institutes, and Centers The NIH consists of institutes and centers funded independently by Congress and centrally administered by the Office of the Director: National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Eye Institute (NEI), National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMSD), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDKD), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), John E. Fogarty International Center (FIC), Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center (CC), Center for Information Technology (CIT), and Center for Scientific Review (CSR, formerly DRG).

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences The research activities of the institutes and centers are tied to the Office of the Director through the Office of Extramural Research, which oversees extramural activities conducted through grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements, and to the Office of Intramural Research, which coordinates research that is conducted mainly on-site by NIH personnel. A central listing of extramural programs, which draw approximately 80 percent of the NIH budget, is available in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, at <www.nih.gov/grants/guide/index.html>. Support Mechanisms and Cross-Disciplinary Programs Most off-site research is funded through the Office of Extramural Research. Funding mechanisms, which include center grants (e.g., P30), program project grants (P01), and small grants (R03), are described in Research Grants, at <www.nih.gov/grants/policy/emprograms/overview/resrchgr.htm>. It may be difficult for a mathematical scientist without a proven track record at NIH to receive funding from it. Forming a collaboration with an established NIH scientist is a good way to obtain initial funding from NIH and establish oneself within the agency.1 NIH sponsors programs that allow for—or specifically promote—such collaborations, either on- or off-site. Some of these programs and others that promote cross-disciplinary education and training2 are listed below: Genetic Basis of Complex Behaviors, PA-98-097, solicits applications for multidisciplinary, methodologically rigorous programs of neuroscience research that will use advanced techniques for statistical and molecular genetic analysis in human and animal populations to elucidate the genetic basis of complex behaviors. Provides up to 5 years support. Genetic Architecture of Complex Phenotypes, PA-98-078, supports new studies on the architecture of complex phenotypes, including research using human and model systems as well as research using theoretical approaches. Studies targeted by this program are expected, in part, to increase the quantity and quality of population-based data, lead to development of mathematical and statistical tools for analyzing measured genotype data, and create biologically relevant models for understanding the origins, roles, and implications of genetic variation in causing variation in phenotypes. Duration of grants varies with type of support, which can be principal investigator-or program-based. Supplements for the Study of Complex Biological Systems, PA-98-024, supports new quantitative approaches to the study of complex, fundamental biological processes by encouraging nontraditional collaboration across disciplinary lines. Term of award is limited by the funding period of the parent grant. Quantitative Approaches to the Analysis of Complex Biological Systems, PA-98-077, supports research projects that develop quantitative approaches to describe, analyze, and predict the behavior of complex biological systems, especially those requiring the integration of potentially large amounts of molecular, biochemical, cell biological, and physiological data. 1    Names of NIH principal investigators (for potential collaboration) can be found through the Community of Science database at <www.cos.com>. Similarly, a scientist can use this database to identify mathematical scientists funded through NIH or other federal agencies. 2    Some, but not all, NIH research training opportunities can be found at <grants.nih.gov.training/>.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences These projects are expected to require the participation of individuals with diverse expertise and therefore to be of a collaborative and cross-disciplinary nature. Applicants are strongly encouraged to consider research areas in which systems approaches are likely to make significant contributions. There is a particular interest in studies using mathematical, computational, or theoretical approaches to understanding the fundamental biological mechanisms underlying behavior/molecular genetic analysis in human and animal populations to elucidate the genetic basis of complex behaviors. Provides up to 5 years support. Fellowships in Quantitative Biology, PA-98-082, encourages highly qualified individuals with doctoral training in the “traditional quantitative disciplines (such as mathematics, physics, engineering, and computer science) and biology” to obtain additional training in biological areas congruent to the mission of NIGMS, the institute tasked with supporting basic biomedical research that is not targeted to specific diseases and disorders. Up to 3 years of support. Short Courses on Mathematical and Statistical Tools for the Study of Complex Phenotypes and Complex Systems, PA-98-083,3 provides support for short courses or workshops to assist scientists in preparing for research on complex phenotypes and complex systems by obtaining a solid understanding of available mathematical and computational tools and the requisite instruction in mathematical languages and applications of mathematics and statistics in order to facilitate collaboration with mathematical scientists on biological complexity. Support is limited to highly focused courses that reach a wide audience of scientists; it is not intended for university course or curriculum development. Up to 5 years of support. Curriculum Development Award in Genomic Research and Analysis, PAR-98-063, supports the development of courses and curricula designed to train interdisciplinary scientists who combine a knowledge of genetics and genomics research with expertise in computer science, mathematics, chemistry, physics, engineering, or closely related sciences. A collaborator must be identified who will contribute to the interdisciplinary nature of the courses or curricula. From 3 to 5 years of support. Epidemiologic Research on Drug Abuse, PA-99-002, supports studies that focus on defining factors and patterns associated with the initiation, escalation, continuation, and cessation of drug use and on associated antisocial, health-threatening, and other problematic behaviors that arise as a result of drug abuse. Development and application of innovative sampling, surveillance, ethnographic, and data collection methods and refinement of statistical tools to analyze epidemiologic data will be encouraged. The Investigator-Initiated Interactive Research Projects Grants, PA-96-001, offers a means of promoting collaborative efforts between or among projects that are scientifically related, while providing a record of independently obtained awards and retaining the research autonomy of each principal investigator. Medical Informatics Training Program, at <www.lhncbc.nlm.nih.gov/mitp/>, supports visiting scientists and students for research participation at the National Library of Medicine's Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications. Programs include the following: Research Participation Program in Imaging Applications, which offers fellowships to faculty (3 months of funding) and students (3 months to 1 year of funding) pursuing research in image processing, object-oriented databases, visualization, and Internet distribution networks and 3   See addendum, Notice 98-12, <www.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98–112.html>.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences Research Program in Medical Informatics for Visiting Faculty, which provides faculty and research staff members at accredited colleges, universities, and technical institutes the opportunity for short-term visits, summer visits, or sabbatical leaves at the enter to pursue collaborative research in a variety of areas of medical informatics. An NIH researcher seeking funds to explore a high-risk, high-payoff area of cross-disciplinary research should consider applying for a short-term, R21 grant from NIGMH: Exploratory Studies for High-Risk/High-Impact Research, PA-97-049 (at <www.nih.gov/nigms/funding/pa/r21.html>. If the initial research holds promise, the principal investigator can then apply for another grant to further the research, possibly through a cross-disciplinary collaboration. Program Announcements A list of all notices, program announcements, and requests for applications (RFAs) published through the Office of Extramural Research is available through the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts at <www.nih.gov/grants/guide/index.htm> or <grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/welcomewagon.htm>. A specific program announcement, PA-YY-NNN, will be listed under the address <www.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-YY-NNN.html>. Review NIH employs a two-part review process involving (1) initial review groups (IRGs) and (2) institute/center-based advisory councils. There are approximately 20 IRGs, organized by subject matter and composed of more focused study sections, which generally consist of 18–20 experts. The advisory councils are composed of leaders in the basic sciences (and mathematical science), medical sciences, education, or public affairs, who are appointed for each institute or center by its director. A request for a research grant submitted by one or more prospective principal investigators is initially sent to the Center for Scientific Review, where it is considered by a referral officer, who decides which IRG and which institute(s)/center(s) would be most suitable to fund the application. (The referral office considers requests for both study section and institute/center assignments.) The assignment process is a flexible one, with interaction available on a case-by-case basis among referral officers, study section scientific review administrators (SRAs), institute program representatives, and applicants. As applications are assigned to study sections, the SRA decides which study section members are best suited to review the proposal or act as discussants. Typically, two or three members are assigned as reviewers and one or two others serve as discussants. Study sections meet between mid-February and mid-March to discuss the scientific and technical merit of

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences proposals. As of October 1997, all unsolicited4 research grant applications are reviewed according to five criteria established by the NIH Committee on Improving Peer Review: Significance. Does this study address an important problem? If the aims of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced? What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that drive this field? Approach. Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses adequately developed, well integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the project? Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider alternative tactics? Innovation. Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches, or methods? Are the aims original and innovative? Does the project challenge existing paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies? Investigator. Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited to carry out this work? Is the work proposed appropriate to the expertise level of the proposed principal investigator and other researchers (if any)? Environment. Does the scientific environment in which the work will be done contribute to the probability of success? Do the proposed experiments take advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ useful collaborative arrangements? Is there evidence of institutional support? The products of the deliberations are an evaluative summary statement; a priority score for each application found to have significant and substantial merit; and a percentile score of each application (ranked against all applications reviewed by the same review group within the past 3 years). At this point, NIH's program officials become the applicant's link to the NIH with regard to the interpretation of reviews and disposition of the application. Usually, an application proceeds to the second level of review if its scientific merit rating places it among the top two-thirds of all applications. This level of review involves the institute's or the center's advisory council, which meets in May/June of each year and considers both the proposal's scientific merit ratings and its importance to the mission of the institute or center. In some cases, NIH expands this phase of review to include site visits. Tips Applicants are generally encouraged to talk to program directors and other NIH contacts listed on announcements and solicitations, to consider applying for special programs, and to read the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. Mathematical scientists seeking initial support should take the following steps: Contact NIH staff members in charge of IRGs having potential overlap with the health-related component of the proposed research and determine their willingness to convene a 4    Proposals submitted in response to normal program announcements are considered unsolicited. Solicited grants include RFA program announcements with special receipt dates (PAR), Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants, and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grants. RFAs and other solicitations will contain specific criteria for scientific peer review.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences noncommissioned special emphasis panel (SEP) having expertise in the appropriate mathematical science(s) to serve as an ad hoc study section during the initial step of the review process; Specifically request the IRG and type of SEP most appropriate for the proposal; and Clearly tie the proposed project to those areas of health-related research and training discussed in the program announcement/solicitation to which application is being made and, where possible, further relate the proposed project to the mission of the sponsoring institute or center(s). The appeals process is discussed at <www.nih.gov/nigms/funding/appeals.html>. National Science Foundation <www.nsf.gov> Offices and Directorates The Office of the Director includes several staff offices, including the Office of Polar Programs and the Office of Integrative Activities. It oversees all NSF activities, from the development of policy priorities to the establishment of administrative and management guidelines, including long-range planning. The NSF is further organized into the following directorates: Biological Sciences (BIO), Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE), Education and Human Resources (EHR), Engineering (ENG), Geosciences (GEO), Mathematical and Physical Sciences (MPS), and Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences (SBE). Detailed information about the organizational structure of the NSF is available online at <www.nsf.gov/home/nsforg/orglist.htm>. A guide to grants may be found at <www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf992/start.htm>. Crosscutting Programs Many, but not all, crosscutting programs are listed on the Web sites for crosscutting programs, <www.nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/start.htm>, and for the Division of Mathematical Sciences within MPS, <www.nsf.gov/mps/dms/start.htm>.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences Support Mechanisms for Crosscutting Research Involving Mathematics The funding mechanisms at NSF are flexible, offering a variety of means by which crosscutting research involving mathematics can be supported: within a single directorate; between directorates; and among the NSF and other organizations, including other federal agencies, international agencies, and private organizations. Specific programs that support cross-disciplinary collaborations between scientists and mathematical scientists include the following: Grant Opportunities for Academic Liaison with Industry (GOALI), NSF-98-142, supports an eclectic mix of industry-university linkages. Special interest is focused on affording opportunities for (1) faculty, postdoctoral fellows, and students to conduct research and gain experience with production processes in an industrial setting; (2) industry scientists, mathematical scientists, and engineers to bring industry's perspective and integrative skills to academe, and (3) interdisciplinary university-industry teams to conduct long-term projects. Interdisciplinary Grants in the Mathematical Sciences (IGMS), NSF 99–157, enables mathematical scientists to undertake research and study in another discipline so as to expand their skills and knowledge to areas other than the mathematical sciences; to subsequently apply this knowledge to their research; and to enrich the educational experiences and broaden the career options of their students. Recipients are expected to spend 11 months full-time (within a 12-month period) either in a nonmathematical academic science department or in an industrial, commercial, or financial institution. These awards are in addition to those provided by GOALI. In addition, program officers from different divisions/directorates can work together to coreview and potentially cofund cross-disciplinary proposals. For example, in 1992, an applied mathematician, a statistician, and an experimental biologist submitted a proposal called Nonlinear Demographic Dynamics: Mathematical Models, Biological Experiments, and Data Analysis to the Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS). The principal program officer asked a co-worker from the Division of Environmental Biology to independently review the proposal. Neither review warranted traditional funding of the proposal. However, the DMS program officer thought that the cross-disciplinary research held promise and offered the researchers a very small grant to further develop the proposal. A year later, the group submitted a stronger proposal, which earned highly favorable reviews by both peer review groups. The updated proposal was funded at an amount 20 times that of the earlier developmental award. The research led to notable publications, including the article “Chaotic dynamics in an insect population,” Science 275:389–391, which reports the observation of classical signs of chaos—period-doubling, bifurcations, and strange attractors—in laboratory populations of the flour beetle, providing rare and compelling data in support of a controversial theory of nonlinear population dynamics.5 The Office of Multidisciplinary Activities (OMA) is another resource available to program officers seeking supplementary funding for new, cross-disciplinary proposals. Located in the MPS directorate, this office will match or supplement divisional funds for a particularly novel, challenging, or complex multidisciplinary research project that does not fit well into the existing program structure or whose realization might otherwise be hampered by institutional and 5    For additional information about this research, see the American Mathematical Society's publication What's Happening in the Mathematical Sciences 1998–1999, pp. 73–81.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences procedural barriers. Although the OMA is located within the MPS, its funds are available to provide supplementary funding for crosscutting research involving a mathematical and/or physical science and other area of science. The OMA does not accept proposals directly, it does not review proposals, and it does not fund grant renewals. Program Announcements The Overview of Programs, at <www.nsf.gov/home/programs/start.htm>, lists programs by subject area. Specific announcements, identified according to the format NSF YY-NN(N), are filed at <www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/getpub?nsfYYNN(N)>. Review The NSF Proposal Processing Unit assigned to the relevant NSF program inspects proposals before sending them to program officers for review. Each proposal then becomes the responsibility of a single program officer within a division of the NSF. Proposals are subject to a peer review process involving scientists and/or mathematical scientists who are not employed by the NSF. Peer review is done by mail, by convening a panel of experts, or both methods. This process is sometimes augmented by a site visit. As of October 1998, reviewers have been asked to evaluate proposals according to two criteria: (1) the intellectual merit of the proposed activity and (2) the broader impacts of the proposed activity. For each criterion, the directions provided to reviewers suggest several questions to be considered: Criterion 1: What is the intellectual merit of the proposed activity? How important is the proposed activity to advancing knowledge and understanding within its own field and across different fields? How well qualified is the proposer (individual or team) to conduct the project? (If appropriate, please comment on the quality of prior work.) To what extent does the proposed activity suggest and explore creative and original concepts? How well conceived and organized is the proposed activity? Is there sufficient access to resources? Criterion 2. What are the broader impacts of the proposed activity? How well does the activity advance discovery and understanding while promoting teaching, training, and learning? How well does the proposed activity broaden the participation of underrepresented (from the standpoint of, say, gender, ethnicity, or geography) groups? To what extent will it enhance the infrastructure for research and education such as facilities, instrumentation, networks, and partnerships? Will the results be disseminated broadly to enhance scientific and technological understanding? What are the possible benefits of the proposed activity to society? In addition, principal investigators should, where possible, indicate how the proposed research accomplishes two further goals of the NSF:

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences Integrating research and education by infusing education with the excitement of research and enriching research through the diversity of the learner perspectives and Integrating diversity into NSF programs by broadening opportunities for minorities and other groups that are underrepresented in the sciences. Review usually takes place at the division level: the division director makes funding decisions based on the recommendations of the program officers. As stated above, in the case of cross-disciplinary proposals, the principal program officer may ask a program officer from another division or directorate to coordinate an independent review of the proposal or to otherwise assist him in reviewing it. Tips The flexible nature of the funding process affords program officers significant discretion as to the manner in which cross-disciplinary proposals are evaluated (i.e., within a single division or through coreview). Thus, the means by which these proposals are evaluated vary across the NSF. Cross-disciplinary investigators should contact directors or program officers from the appropriate divisions prior to submitting proposals. If the feedback is positive, the researcher should, in the cover letter submitted with the proposal, specify that the research is cross-disciplinary and identify the other program officer(s) who have shown interest in the proposed research. The letter should request that the proposal be considered for cofunding across directorates and, where applicable, for OMA support. In addition, it should specify what contribution(s) the proposed research is expected to make to each discipline. (A copy of this letter should be sent to the program officer(s) identified therein.) If a proposal is not funded, the researcher(s) should seriously consider refining it and submitting it the following year. Appeals A grant applicant who believes his or her proposal was improperly reviewed can formally request that the associate director of the appropriate directorate investigate the means by which the proposal was evaluated. The associate director may perform the investigation or solicit someone from another division to handle the appeal. Department of Energy <www.doe.gov> Science Programs DOE programs of scientific research are organized under its Office of Science (formerly the Office of Energy Research). Program areas include the following:

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences Basic Energy Sciences, which includes programs in materials science, chemical science, engineering, geosciences, and energy biosciences; Fusion Energy Sciences, which funds both domestic and international programs pursuing fusion energy through its International and Technology Division and its Science Division; Biological and Environmental Research, which includes life sciences research, medical sciences, and environmental sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research, which includes mathematical, information, and computational sciences, and advanced energy projects and technology research. Program Announcements The Office of Science maintains a grants and contracts Web site at <http://www.er.doe.gov/production/grants/grants.html>, which posts solicitations inviting grant and contract applications. Recent areas of application have included plasma physics, environmental meteorology, human genome technology advances, environmental management science, energy biosciences, and Next Generation Internet. A guide to grants may be found at <http://www.er.doe.gov/production/grants/guide.html>. Specific Programs The Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division, <http:www.er.doe.gov/production/octr/mics/index.html>, has long supported applied mathematics relevant to the DOE's mission areas. For example, projects are ongoing in areas such as combustion modeling, materials processing, microscale modeling of materials, and photolithography and etching. Many of its grants link academic and industrial researchers with scientists or mathematical scientists at the national laboratories. Numerous research and training opportunities exist at the DOE laboratories for university students at both the graduate and undergraduate level, for postdoctoral researchers, and faculty. Information on these programs can be found at <http://www.sandia.gov/ESTEEM/home.html>. Information on the Computational Science Fellowship highlighted in Chapter 2 can be found at <http://www.krellinst.org/CSGF>. Review Project managers review applications for technical/scientific merit and program policy factors. In addition, the application is generally submitted to at least three qualified reviewers for evaluation. Such additional reviewers may be federal employees (including those from the Office of Science who are neither the selecting official nor in a direct line of supervision above the project manager) or nonfederal employees. All reviewers serve as advisors to the selecting official, and their recommendations are not binding. The Office of Science utilizes various types of review mechanism to accomplish a merit review: field readers, standing committees, and ad

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences hoc committees. Upon request, applicants will be provided with a summary of the evaluation of their application. Selection of applications for award will be done by the authorized Office of Science selecting official and will be based upon merit review, the importance and relevance of the proposed project to Office of Science missions, and funding availability. Tips Office of Science policy encourages a potential applicant to discuss his or her proposed research project with Office of Science program staff to clarify areas of research interest before submitting the applications. In addition, an optional preapplication process allows the potential applicant to receive a response from the cognizant program office regarding the suitability of his or her proposed research project to DOE interests.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MISSION-ORIENTED AGENCIES Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency <www.darpa.mil> Mission The aim of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is to develop imaginative, innovative, and often high-risk research ideas offering a significant technological impact that will go well beyond the normal evolutionary developmental approaches and to pursue these ideas from the demonstration of technical feasibility through the development of prototype systems. Technical Offices and Their Missions The Advanced Technology Office (ATO) explores high-payoff programs in the areas of maritime, communications, and early entry/special forces operations. This is accomplished through development and transitioning of demonstrated systems for military users to respond to new and emerging threats. The Defense Science Office (DSO) mission is to identify and pursue the most promising technologies within the basic science and engineering research community and develop them into new DOD capabilities. The Information Systems Office (ISO) mission focuses on revolutionizing national security and military operations through the power of information systems technology . . . to know, to know more, to know faster, and be able to act flexibly. The Information Technology Office (ITO) focuses on inventing the networking, computing, and software technologies vital to ensuring DOD military superiority. The Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) mission focuses on the heterogeneous microchip-scale integration of electronics, photonics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Their high-risk, high-payoff technology is aimed at solving the national level problems of protection from biological, chemical, and information attack and providing operational dominance for mobile distributed command and control, combined manned/unmanned warfare, and dynamic, adaptive military planning and execution. The Special Projects Office (SPO) mission focuses on technologies that counter present and emerging national challenges in the areas of advanced detection and sensor systems, guidance and navigation capabilities, and underground facilities and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The Tactical Technology Office (TTO) engages in high-risk, high-payoff advanced military research, emphasizing the “system” and “subsystem” approach to the development of aeronautic, space, and land systems, as well as embedded processors and control systems.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences Applied and Computational Mathematics Program DARPA's Applied and Computational Mathematics Program (ACMP) seeks to identify, develop, and demonstrate new mathematical paradigms enabling maximum performance at minimum cost in a wide variety of DOD systems applications. ACMP looks for opportunities to aggressively leverage the power of mathematical representations to effectively exploit the power of large-scale computational resources as they apply to specific problems of interest. ACMP's products are typically advanced algorithms and design methodologies. ACMP is pursuing the development of well-conditioned fast algorithms and strategies for the exploitation of high-dimensional data (i.e., data with a high number of degrees of freedom) in order to deal with a variety of complex military problems such as adaptive array processing for missile seekers, waveform design for space borne sensors and communication applications, virtual integrated prototyping of advanced materials processing, efficient high-fidelity scattering computations for radar cross sections, and efficient mapping of signal-processing kernels onto advanced DOD hardware architectures. There are currently four major R&D areas in DARPA's Defense Applications of Advanced Mathematics program: (1) signal and image processing, (2) virtual integrated prototyping of material processing, (3) fast and scalable scientific computation, and (4) virtual electromagnetic test range for air vehicles, <http://www.darpa.mil/dso/thrust/am/index.htm>. Program Solicitations Solicitations are published in the Commerce Business Daily and are listed, by office, at <www.darpa.mil/baa>. Review Owing to the proprietary nature of the solicited research, DARPA does not implement a peer review process.6 The appropriate program manager (usually listed on the program solicitation) conducts a technical review of incoming proposals, and a final decision is made by the director of the appropriate technical office. To receive support, proposals must promise new and innovative mathematical science, science, or both, and the proposed research must further an application-oriented defense objective. Programs can be proposal-driven. If a program manager receives a particularly novel proposal with the potential to open up a new area of research or sufficiently expand a current one, he will use discretionary funds to support it or will consider building a program around it. Although DARPA supports novel and bold research proposals, it does not usually provide start-up funding for projects in the very early stages of development. 6    Instead of using advisory committees to review proposals, DARPA employs committees of experts to provide technical expertise and long-term program guidance. For example, DSO and ETO draw on the expertise of the Defense Sciences Research Committee (DSRC), which is run by an independent contractor.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences Tips Proposals should indicate what type of mission-related application the research is expected to have. Researchers are strongly encouraged to discuss their ideas with program managers before submitting proposals, particularly those that are unsolicited (i.e., not submitted in response to a broad agency amendment ((BAA)). Office of Naval Research <www.onr.navy.mil> Science and Technology Departments The Office of Naval Research (ONR) solicits long-range science and technology (S&T) research projects in the following areas: Information, electronics, and surveillance: Electronics Division; Mathematical, Computer and Information Sciences Division; and Surveillance, Communications and Electronic Combat Division; Ocean, atmosphere, and space: Sensing and Systems Division and Processes and Prediction Division; Engineering, materials, and physical science: Physical Sciences S&T Division; Materials Sciences S&T Division; Mechanics and Energy Conservation S&T Division; Ship Structures and Systems S&T Division; Biomolecular and Biosystems S&T Division; Human systems: Medical S&T Division and Cognitive and Neural S&T Division; Naval expeditionary warfare operations technology: Strike Technology Division and Expeditionary Warfare Operations Technology Division; and Industrial and corporate programs: Manufacturing S&T (MANTECH) Division and Product Innovation Division. ONR solicits the projects through the main broad agency announcement, 98-019, at <www.onr.navy.mil/02/baa/>. Specific Programs Faculty Sabbatical Leave Program, at <www.onr.navy.mil/sci_tech/special/onrpgadr.htm>, allows faculty on sabbatical leave to conduct research at Navy laboratories. Appointments are for at least one semester but no more than a year. U.S. Navy Summer Faculty Research Program, at <www.onr.navy.mil/sci_tech/special/onrpgadn.htm>, gives sciences and engineering faculty members from institutions of higher learning the opportunity to participate in research at Navy laboratories for a 10-week period during the summer break. Three levels of appointment are

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences available: summer faculty fellow, senior summer faculty fellow, and distinguished summer faculty fellow. Level of appointment is determined by a committee of scientists and engineers. Expert technical cooperation is needed in areas such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, electronics, aerodynamics, and materials science engineering (software, hardware, processing, etc.). Review ONR proposals are subject to scientific/technical review by program officers and further review by senior ONR managers. Proposals are not subject to peer review. Most proposals are evaluated according to the following criteria: Overall scientific, technical, and/or socioeconomic merits of the proposal; Potential naval relevance and contributions of the effort to the agency's specific mission; The principal investigator's capabilities, related experience, facilities, techniques, or unique combinations of these, which are integral factors for achieving the proposal objectives; The qualifications, capabilities, and experience of the proposed principal investigator, the team leader, and key personnel who are critical in achieving the proposal objectives; and Realism of the proposed cost and availability of funds. For some programs, proposal submission is a two-step process: white papers are sought from prospective principal investigators. Based on the evaluation of these papers, selected applicants are invited to submit full proposals. Tips Investigators should identify which type(s) of application(s) potentially exist(s) for the proposed research and specify in the proposal/white paper how the proposed research ties into the broad mission of ONR. Before preparing a proposal/white paper, a potential principal investigator should contact the ONR program officer(s) whose program best matches his or her field(s) of interest. To identify these individuals, consult Research Interests and Division Directors, <www.onr.navy.mil/sci_tech/special/yip>. Army Research Office <www.aro.army.mil> Areas of Interest The Army Research Office (ARO) is interested in research in several areas: biosciences, chemistry, electronics, engineering sciences, environmental sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, materials sciences, and physics. These areas are described more fully in the broad agency announcement DAAD19-99-R-BAA1, which is intended to cover, in a general

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences way, all research areas of interest to ARO. This document is published in the Commerce Business Daily and is available online at the ARO Web site under “Annual BAA.” Review ARO reviews research proposals in two phases. Staff members perform initial reviews based on scientific merit and the potential contribution of the proposed research to the Army's mission. In addition, they determine if funds are available for the proposed effort. The surviving proposals are then subject to extensive peer review by scientists from within the government and by scientists and other experts outside the government. Most proposals are evaluated using the criteria listed below (in descending order of importance): The overall scientific and/or technical merits of the proposal; The potential contributions of the effort to the ARO mission and the extent to which the research effort will contribute to balancing the overall ARO research program; The principal investigator's capabilities, related experience, facilities, techniques, or unique combinations of these which are integral factors for achieving the proposed objectives; The qualifications, capabilities, and experience of the principal investigator, team leader, or other key personnel who are critical to achievement of the proposed objectives; The proposed principal investigator's record of past performance; and The reasonableness and realism of the proposed costs and fee and the availability of funds. Tips Researchers contemplating submission of a proposal are encouraged to contact the appropriate ARO program manager/scientist to ascertain the extent of interest in the specific research project. Only a small number of comprehensive, interdisciplinary programs can be initiated in a single fiscal year. Inquiries about comprehensive and interdisciplinary programs should be sent to the director of ARO. Prospective principal investigators are encouraged to submit proposals in two distinct phases: Phase I proposals provide the technical and budgetary information set forth in Section 3 of Part IV of the BAA. Phase II proposals (i.e., those that survive phase I) include the additional information identified in Section 4 of Part IV of the BAA.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences Air Force Office of Scientific Research <www.afosr.af.mil> Research Interests The Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) is interested in research in the following areas: • Aerospace and materials sciences Structural mechanics, Mechanics of composite materials, Unsteady aerodynamics and hypersonics, Turbulence and rotating flows, Combustion and diagnostics, Space power and propulsion, Metallic materials, Ceramics and nonmetallic materials, and Organic matrix composites. • Physics and electronics Plasma physics, Space electronics, Atomic and molecular physics, Imaging physics, Optoelectronic information processing: devices and systems, Optical and photonic physics, Quantum electronic solids, Semiconductor materials, and Electromagnetic materials. • Chemistry and life sciences Polymer chemistry, Surface science, Theoretical chemistry, Molecular dynamics, Chronobiology and neural adaptation, Perception and cognition, Sensory systems, and Bioenvironmental science.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences • Mathematics and space sciences Dynamics and control, Physical mathematics and applied analysis, Computational mathematics, External aerodynamics and hypersonics, Optimization and discrete mathematics, Signals communication and surveillance, Software and systems, Artificial intelligence, Electromagnetics, Upper atmospheric physics, and Space sciences. These areas are discussed in the broad agency announcement, which can be accessed from <http:ecs.ram.com/afosr/afr/afo/any/menu/any/afrfund.htm#research>. Program Announcements The Air Force solicits all research through broad agency announcements BAA-1 and specialized BAAs, which are published in the Commerce Business Daily and at the above Web site. Review Peer review, scientific/technical review by program officers, or both, are used to evaluate proposals. Unless otherwise stated, proposals are evaluated under the following two primary criteria, which are of equal importance: The scientific and technical merits of the proposed research and The potential contributions of the proposed research to the mission of the Air Force. Other evaluation criteria used in the technical reviews, which are of lesser importance than the primary criteria and equal to one another in importance, are as follows: The likelihood that the proposed effort will develop new research capabilities and broaden the research base in support of national defense; The proposed principal investigator's, team leader's, or key personnel's qualifications, capabilities, related experience, facilities, or techniques or a combination of these factors that is integral to achieving Air Force objectives; The past performance of the principal investigator and associated personnel; and The realism and reasonableness of proposed costs and availability of funds; although not a primary evaluation factor, price is a substantial factor in the selection of proposals for award.

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Strengthening the Linkages Between the Sciences and the Mathematical Sciences Tips Proposals should clearly indicate how the proposed research ties into the mission and research interests of AFOSR as described in AFOSR Research Interests Brochure and Broad Agency Announcement. Prospective principal investigators are encouraged to consult with AFOSR technical personnel for opinions on any proposed research before completing and submitting a full proposal. Sometimes a preliminary proposal is submitted. It should be in letter format and briefly describe the proposed research project's (1) objective, (2) general approach, and (3) impact on DOD and civilian technology, as well as any unique capabilities or experience of the principal investigator (e.g., collaborative research activities involving Air Force, DOD, or other federal laboratories). Preproposal letters should not exceed three typewritten pages.

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