Jose has 12 marbles and puts them into piles of 3. How many piles does he have?

Jose has 12 marbles and divides them equally into 3 piles. How many marbles are in each pile?

Additional types of multiplication and division problems are introduced later in the curriculum. These include rate problems, multiplicative comparison problems, array and area problems, and Cartesian products.9

As with addition and subtraction problems, children initially solve multiplication and division problems by modeling directly the action and relations in the problems.10 For the above multiplication problem with marbles, they form four piles with three in each and count the total to find the answer. For the first division problem, they make groups of the specified size of three and count the number of groups to find the answer. For the other problem, they make the three groups by dealing out (as in cards) and count the number in one of the groups. Although adults may recognize both problems as 12 divided by 3, children initially think of them in terms of the actions or relations portrayed. Over time, these direct modeling procedures are replaced by more efficient methods based on counting, repeated adding or subtracting, or deriving an answer from a known number combination.11

The observation that children use different methods to solve problems that describe different situations has important implications. On the one hand, directly modeling the action in the problem is a highly sensible approach. On the other hand, as numbers in problems get larger, it becomes inefficient to carry out direct modeling procedures that involve counting all of the objects.

Children’s proficiency gradually develops in two significant directions. One is from having a different solution method for each type of problem to developing a single general method that can be used for classes of problems with a similar mathematical structure. Another direction is toward more efficient calculation procedures. Direct-modeling procedures evolve into the more advanced counting procedures described in the next section. For word problems, these procedures are essentially abstractions of direct modeling that continue to reflect the actions and relations in the problems.

The method children might use to solve a class of problems is not necessarily the method traditionally taught. For example, many children come to solve the “subtraction” problems described above by counting, adding up, or thinking of a related addition combination because any of these methods is easier and more accurate than counting backwards. The method traditionally presented in textbooks, however, is to solve both of these problems by



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