51.  

On the basis of these results for multidigit addition and subtraction, Siegler, in press, suggests, as a broad principle, that conceptual instruction should occur prior to teaching of procedures. Rittle-Johnson and Alibali, 1999, reported similar results with respect to mathematical equivalence.

52.  

Beishuizen, 1993; Beishuizen, Van Putten, and Van Mulken, 1997; Hiebert, Carpenter, Fennema, Fuson, Wearne, Murray, Olivier, Human, 1997; Hiebert and Wearne, 1993, 1996.

53.  

Fuson, 1992a, 1992b.

54.  

Carpenter, Franke, Jacobs, Fennema, Empson, 1998; Carraher, Carraher, and Schliemann, 1987; Cobb and Wheatley, 1988; Fuson and Burghardt, 1993; Hiebert, Carpenter, Fennema, Fuson, Wearne, Murray, Olivier, and Human, 1997; Hiebert and Wearne, 1996; Kamii, 1989; Labinowicz, 1985; Nunes, 1992; Olivier, Murray, and Human, 1990; Saxe, 1988; Ambrose, Baek, and Carpenter, in press.

55.  

Kamii and Dominick, 1998.

56.  

Hiebert and Wearne, 1993, 1996.

57.  

Carpenter, Franke, Jacobs, Fennema, and Empson, 1998; Fuson and Briars, 1990; Hiebert and Wearne, 1993, 1996.

58.  

Cobb and Bauersfeld, 1995; Fuson, 1992a, 1992b; Hiebert, Carpenter, Fennema, Fuson, Wearne, Murray, Olivier, and Human, 1997; Kamii, 1989.

59.  

Carpenter, Franke, Jacobs, Fennema, and Empson, 1998; Fuson and Briars, 1990; Hiebert and Wearne, 1993, 1996. See Carroll and Porter, 1998, for some alternative algorithms. For a discussion of principles for creating classroom environments that incorporate these features of effective teaching, see Fuson, De La Cruz, Smith, Lo Cicero, Hudson, Ron, and Steeby, 2000.

60.  

Uttal, Scudder, DeLoache, 1997.

61.  

Hiebert and Wearne, 1996.

62.  

Beishuizen, Gravemeijer, and van Lieshout, 1997; Bowers, Cobb, and McClain, 1999; Fuson and Burghardt, 1993, in press; Carpenter, Franke, Jacobs, Fennema, and Empson, 1998; McClain, Cobb, and Bowers, 1998; Fuson and Briars, 1990.

63.  

Fuson, 1990.

64.  

Cauley, 1988; Fuson and Burghardt, 1993, 1997, in press; Hiebert and Wearne, 1996.

65.  

VanLehn, 1986.

66.  

Fuson and Briars, 1990; Hiebert and Wearne, 1993, 1996. For examples of student difficulties with numeration and the base-10 system, see Bednarz and Janvier, 1982.

67.  

Student-invented procedures are sometimes not really algorithms because the steps are not precisely specified but instead follow a path that emerges through the process—and that path may be slightly different if the same problem is posed again. Because such procedures can often be made into algorithms by deliberate specification of the steps, the distinction between algorithms and ad hoc procedures is seldom maintained in the literature. (See, e.g., the articles in Morrow and Kenney, 1998.)

68.  

Carpenter, Franke, Jacobs, Fennema, Empson, 1998; Fuson and Burghardt, 1993; Hiebert, Carpenter, Fennema, Fuson, Wearne, Murray, Olivier, and Human, 1997.

69.  

Fuson, Wearne, Hiebert, Murray, Human, Olivier, Carpenter, and Fennema, 1997.

70.  

Fuson and Burghardt, 1993, in press.



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