students achieve proficiency in domains other than number, including beginning algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability.

Chapters 9 and 10 focus on the teaching of mathematics. Chapter 9 describes what we know from research about teaching for mathematical proficiency. Chapter 10 discusses what it means to be a proficient teacher of mathematics and describes the kinds of experiences teachers need to develop this proficiency.

Finally, chapter 11 presents the committee’s recommendations for teaching practices, curricula, and teacher education, offering some suggestions for parents, educators, and others. Chapter 11 also recommends the various types of research needed if both practice and policy are to be improved.



Butts, 1955, p. 454; Cubberley, 1920, pp. 17, 235; Kouba and Wearne, 2000; Thorndike, 1922.


Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998, p. 20. The case for critical reading skill and literacy by adolescence is addressed by Moore, Bean, Birdyshaw, and Rycik, 1999.


Binkley and Williams, 1996; Elley, 1992.


Fuson, Smith, and Lo Cicero, 1997; Griffin, Case, and Siegler, 1994; Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998.


One well-known program is called Reading Recovery (see Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998, pp. 255–258), which is designed for the lowest fifth of a first-grade class. In that program, the teacher, who has received extensive instruction in the reading process and its implications for teaching, notes an individual child’s literacy strategies and knowledge and then engages the child in a structured series of activities. Each child is tutored individually for a half hour a day for up to 20 weeks.


Wagner and Stanovich, 1996.


Anderson, Wilson, and Fielding, 1988.


See chapter 2 for data on the level of instructional emphasis fourth- and eighth-grade teachers reported giving to number and operations.


See, for example, the SCANS study (U.S. Department of Labor, Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills, 1991).


James, 1899/1958, p. 26.


James, 1899/1958, p. 23.


Anderson, R.C., Wilson, P.T., & Fielding, L.G. (1988). Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 285–303.

Binkley, M., & Williams, T. (1996). Reading literacy in the United States: Findings from the IEA Reading Literacy Study (NCES-96–258). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available: [July 10, 2001].

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