23.  

Schwille, Porter, Belli, Floden, Freeman, Knappen, Kuhs, and Schmidt, 1983; Stodolsky, 1988; Sosniak and Stodolsky, 1993.

24.  

Tyson-Bernstein, 1988, p. 7.

25.  

Fuson, Stigler, and Bartsch, 1988; McKnight, Crosswhite, Dossey, Kifer, Swafford, Travers, and Cooney, 1987; McKnight and Schmidt, 1998; Peak, 1996.

26.  

Flanders, 1987; Fuson, Stigler, and Bartsch, 1988; Schmidt, McKnight, and Raizen, 1997.

27.  

Fuson, Stigler, and Bartsch, 1988; Schmidt, McKnight, Cogan, Jakwerth, and Houang, 1999; Schmidt, McKnight, and Raizen, 1997.

28.  

Levin, 1989; Levin and Mayer, 1993; Mayer, 1993.

29.  

Reys, 2000.

30.  

U.S. Department of Education, Mathematics and Science Expert Panel, 1999.

31.  

Mathematically Correct, 2000.

32.  

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2000a, 2000b; Clopton, McKeown, McKeown, and Clopton, 2000a, 2000b.

33.  

The current center is the National Center for Improving Student Learning and Achievement in Mathematics and Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. For information on currently funded projects, see http://forum.swarthmore.edu/mathed/curriculum.dev.html. [July 20, 2001].

34.  

For example, the University of Chicago School Mathematics project and the Mathematics in Context project at the University of Wisconsin.

35.  

Tyson-Bernstein, 1988, pp. 17–36.

36.  

Glaser and Silver, 1994, p. 403.

37.  

Mitchell, Hawkins, Jakwerth, Stancavage, and Dossey, 1999, pp. 260–264.

38.  

Mitchell, Hawkins, Jakwerth, Stancavage, and Dossey, 1999, p. 261. Moderate testing is associated with higher achievement even when controlling for socioeconomic factors. See Mullis, Jenkins, and Johnson, 1994, p. 61.

39.  

For a discussion of these calls, see Elmore and Rothman, 1999.

40.  

Mitchell, Hawkins, Jakwerth, Stancavage, and Dossey, 1999, p. 262.

41.  

Dossey, 1997, p. 37.

42.  

Council of Chief State School Officers, 1998.

43.  

Jerald, Curran, and Boser, 1999, p. 81. See Education Commission of the States, 2000, for a thorough description of state policies and actions.

44.  

Sandham, 1999.

45.  

Gehring, 2000.

46.  

Bishop, 1997.

47.  

Darling-Hammond, 1999, p. 33.

48.  

Steinberg, 1999.

49.  

This terminology was part of the Title I law; Elmore and Rothman, 1999.

50.  

Archer, 1997.

51.  

Musick, 1997.

52.  

Standardized tests are tests that are “administered and scored under conditions uniform to all students” (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1992, p. 5).

53.  

Romberg and Wilson, 1992.



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