54.  

Rothman, 1995; U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1992, chap. 6.

55.  

Anastasi, 1988; Crocker, and Algina, 1986.

56.  

Rothman, 1995, p. 5.

57.  

Heubert and Hauser, 1998; Pullin, 1993.

58.  

Elmore and Rothman, 1999.

59.  

Except for the data on teachers’ knowledge of the 1989 NCTM standards, the remaining data in this section are taken from Mitchell, Hawkins, Jakwerth, Stancavage, and Dossey, 1999.

60.  

Council of Chief State School Officers, 2000, p. 10.

61.  

Mitchell, Hawkins, Jakwerth, Stancavage, and Dossey, 1999, pp. 251–252.

62.  

Hawkins, Stancavage, and Dossey, 1998, p. 41.

63.  

Antil, Jenkins, Wayne, and Vadasy, 1998.

64.  

Stigler and Hiebert, 1999, pp. 104–106.

65.  

Cuban, 1993; Hoetker and Ahlbrand, 1969.

66.  

Hoetker and Ahlbrand, 1969; Tharp and Gallimore, 1988.

67.  

Stodolsky, 1988.

68.  

Weiss, 1978.

69.  

Stake and Easley, 1978.

70.  

Welch, 1978, p. 6.

71.  

Fey, 1979, p. 494.

72.  

National Advisory Committee on Mathematical Education, 1975, p. 77.

73.  

Stigler, Gonzales, Kawanaka, Knoll, and Serrano, 1999.

74.  

Stigler and Hiebert, 1999.

75.  

Stigler and Hiebert, 1999, p. 61.

76.  

Stigler and Hiebert, 1999, p. 57.

77.  

Dixon, Carnine, Kameenui, Simmons, Lee, Wallin, and Chard, 1998a, 1998b.

78.  

Swafford, 1995.

79.  

Leitzel, 1991.

80.  

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991.

81.  

Raychowdhury, 1998.

82.  

See, for example, National Research Council, 2001; Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 2000. See Ferrini-Mundy and Findell, 2001, for a discussion of the principles behind these and other approaches to improving the connection between the mathematical education of teachers and the mathematics used in classrooms.

83.  

See http://www.ccsso.org/intasc.html [July 20, 2001] for information on model standards and assessments of beginning teachers promoted by the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Standards Consortium.

84.  

Council of Chief State School Officers, 1998. Unless otherwise indicated, the data on certification come from this document.

85.  

Holmes Group, 1986.

86.  

Darling-Hammond, 1997.

87.  

Darling-Hammond, 1999, p. 15.

88.  

Blank and Langeson, 1999, p. 66.



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