One of the starting points of arithmetic is counting. Children can find out how many objects are in a collection by counting them: one, two, three, four, five. They also need zero to say that there is not any of some type of thing.^{2}

Addition arises to simplify counting. When children join two collections, instead of recounting all the objects in the combined set, they add the numbers of objects in each of the original sets. (I have five apples, and Dave has three apples. How many apples do we have together?) Multiplication provides a further shortcut when children want to add many copies of the same number. (I have 10 boxes of cookies, with 12 cookies in each box. How many cookies do I have?) The whole numbers, with the two operations of addition and multiplication, form the *whole number system,* the most basic number system.

It is important to take note that, although the whole numbers with their operations are very familiar, they are already abstract. Although counting is usually done with some particular kind of things (apples or cats or dollars), arithmetic can be independent of the things counted. Five apples plus three apples makes eight apples; five cats plus three cats makes eight cats; five dollars plus three dollars makes eight dollars. (A word of caution: when adding, you must combine units of the same kind: five dollars plus three cats does not make eight of anything in particular.) This independence of the results from whatever is being counted leads to the abstract operation called addition. It is similar with multiplication. Note that the abstract nature of the arithmetic operations is exactly what makes them useful. If addition of apples, of cats, and of dollars each required its own peculiar set of rules, people would probably have no general concept of addition, just ideas about combining each type of object in its own individual way. Mathematics itself might not exist. Certainly, it would require a lot more work.

Although the whole numbers with their operations are very familiar, they are already abstract.

Appropriate to the abstract nature of arithmetic, each operation has several concrete interpretations. We introduced addition by means of its interpretation in terms of combining sets of like objects. Other interpretations are often used. One is the joining of segments of various lengths. If Jane has a rod 3 inches long, and another rod 5 inches long, she can lay them end to end (or perhaps even attach them together) to get a rod 8 inches long.

This interpretation may seem the same, or almost the same, as the combining-sets interpretation. Indeed, it must be somewhat similar, since it is a representation of addition. But it differs in perhaps subtle ways. For example, inches can be subdivided into parts, which are hard to tell from the wholes, except that they are shorter; whereas it is painful to cats to divide