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Adding It Up: Helping Children Learn Mathematics (2001) Center for Education (CFE)

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. "3 Number: What Is There to Know?." Adding It Up: Helping Children Learn Mathematics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2001.

 Page 83

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Adding + It Up: Helping Children Learn Mathematics
 Box 3–3 Consequences of the Basic Properties: Formulas for the Arithmetic of Negation Subtraction and negation. Subtracting a number is the same as adding its opposite. For example, 5–3=5+(–3) and 5–(–2)=5+2. In general, s–t=s+(–t). Multiplication and negation. Negation is the same as multiplication by –1. For example, –3=(–1)×3 and 2=(–1)×(–2). In general, –s=(–1)×s. Opposite of opposite. The opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself. For example, –(–3)=3. In general, –(–s)=s.