and learning is a function of teachers’ knowledge and use of mathematical content, of teachers’ attention to and work with students, and of students’ engagement in and use of mathematical tasks. Effectiveness depends on enactment, on the mutual and interdependent interaction of the three elements—mathematical content, teacher, students—as instruction unfolds. The quality of instruction depends, for example, on whether teachers select cognitively demanding tasks, plan the lesson by elaborating the mathematics that the students are to learn through those tasks, and allocate sufficient time for the students to engage in and spend time on the tasks. Effective teachers have high expectations for their students, motivate them to value learning activities, can interact with students with different abilities and backgrounds, and can establish communities of learners. A teacher’s expectations about students and the mathematics they are able to learn can powerfully influence the tasks the teacher poses for the students, the questions they are asked, the time they have to respond, and the encouragement they are given—in other words, their opportunities and motivation for learning. How the students respond to the opportunities the teacher offers then shapes how the teacher sees their capacity and progress, as well as the tasks they are subsequently given.

The quality of instruction also depends on how students engage with learning tasks. Students must link their informal knowledge and experience to mathematical abstractions. Manipulatives (physical objects used to represent mathematical ideas), when used well, can provide such links. The use of calculators can enhance students’ conceptual understanding, and practice can help them make automatic those procedures they understand. Although much is known about characteristics of effective instruction, research on teaching has often been restricted to describing isolated fragments of teaching and learning rather than examining continued interactions among the teacher, the students, and the mathematical content.



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