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Index A Access broadband, 46 costs of, 4142 equal, 213n to the local loop, 11 open, and cable, 49 Access infrastructure, trends in upgrading the local, 49-50 Adaptive design, scalable, 4041 Adaptive routing, to increase reliability and robustness, 89-90 Address aggregation, routing table scaling and, 66-71 Address space, scaling up, 64-81 Address translation, network, 15, 69-70, 76- 77, 140-142 Address translators, network, 70, 141 Addresses assigning, 7-8 blocks of held by organizations, 7 managing, 65-66 numerical, 64 portability, 167-168 scarcity of, 71-76 tensions surrounding allocation of, 68 Administration, of the Domain Name System, 52 225 Advanced intelligent network (AIN), 159- 160 Advertisements, route, 69,114 Aggregation, address, 66-71 Agreements, interconnection, 112-118 AIN. See Advanced intelligent network Algorithms, scaling of, 56-57 Allocation of addresses, 68,105 America Online (AOL), 111-112,147 merger with Time Warner, 145 American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 133 Anonymity, 190-194 defined, 180 in public policy, 190-194 ANSI. See American National Standards Institute AOL. See America Online Application programming interface (API), specifications for, 124-125 Applications, 4, 36 innovative, 131-132 multimedia, 100 . . reeng~neermg, 6 reliability and robustness of, 92-93 requirements of new, 100 specifications for, 125 Architectures, 34, 154 end-to-end, 4

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226 hourglass model of, 4, 36-38, 127-128 IP telephony, 155-159 PSTN, 16-17 telephony, new and evolving, 154-162 ARIN, 65 ARPANET, 39, 44n, 134 Assigning addresses, 7-8 ATM networks, 100n Attacks denial-of-service, 8 vulnerability of the Internet to, 84-89 Audio, streaming, 100 Authentication issues in public policy on the Internet, 199-204 safeguards for, 24 B Backbone capacity, 3, 20, 31n growth in, 45 Backdoor connections, 108n Balkanization, of the Internet, 10 Bandwidth adding, 99-100 utilizing, 55 Barriers to entry, lowering, for innovation, 42 Bell Labs, 109n Benefits, long-term, of open IP service, 24- 25 Best-effort networks, 9-10 BGP. See Border Gateway Protocol Bilateral peering, 115 BIND software, 63 Biometrics, 202, 204 Bits, 55n nonuniform treatment of, 142-145 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), 71, 104 route advertisements, 69 Boundaries, revenue-neutral, for the Internet, 12-13 Broadband access, 46 deployment of, 47-48 Broadcasting business, 47 Buffer overflow, 100 Business influences on openness, end-to- end transparency in, 145-149 INDEX C Cable & Wireless, 110 Cable modems, 31 Cable operators, 49 Caching DNS, 62 Web, 38 CALEA. See Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act Capacity. See also Bandwidth growth in backbone, 45 scaling of, 55,116-117 Certification authorities, 196 Challenges of distributing information, 6 of harmonization, 28 scaling, 4-6 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, 181, 188 China, Internet use in, 75-76 CIDR. See Classless Interdomain Routing Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR), 67- 69, 79-80 CMIP. See Common Management Information Protocol Collaboration, among researchers, funders and network operators, 20-21 Collisions between existing industries and emerging Internet industries, 15-17, 151-176 future of the Internet and other industry sectors, 175-176 implications of IP telephony for telephony regulation, 170-175 interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 165-170 IP telephony defined, 152-154 new and evolving architectures for telephony, 154-162 scenarios for future evolution, 162-165 Committee on Broadband Last-Mile Technologies, 11, 49 Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP), 137 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA), Federal Communications Commission ruling on, 172-173,175 Communications media, 34 Communications technologies, 4, 31, 36 Computer Industry Almanac, 72

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INDEX Confidentiality safeguards, 24 Congestion, 86-87, 99-100,117 Connectivity, value placed on, 35, 108 Control de centralize d, 4 for interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 168-169 Cookies, 183n, 196 CPNI. See Customer proprietary network information Credit card use, 197-200 Critical open standards in the Internet, 126- 130 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, 129 routing protocols, 129 Cross-Industry Working Team project, 214 Cryptography, public key, 201 Customer proprietary network information (CPNI), 184 Customers requirements of large, 120n value-stratification of, 9,105,118-121 "Cyber-crime," 194 D DARPA. See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Data collection, 26 Data packets, routing of, 4,12 Data services, trends in, 50 Data transfer, mediating, 74 Decentralized control, 4 Dedicated private networks, IP telephony configurations using, 158 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 45 Degraded service, 97-98 Demand for addresses, estimating, 71-75 Denial-of-service attacks, 8 Deployment of IPv6 technology, 79-81 recommendations for investing in, 24 Design distributed, 4 for robustness and reliability, 15, 82-83 scalable distributed and adaptive, 40-41 success by, 3-5 Devices. See Single-purpose devices DHCP. See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 227 Dial-up modems, 32 Differentiated services (diff-serv), 102 "Digital identity," 195 Digital subscriber line (DSL), 31 Directory system proposals, 64 Discounts, 121 Distributed design, 4 scalable, 4041 Distribution of information challenges of, 6 peer-to-peer, 2 Diversification, trends in the ISP market, 4648 DNS. See Domain Name System Domain Name System (DNS), 4, 6, 58-64, 129, 168 administration of, 52 caching, 62 conflicts in, 23n hierarchy, 59 organization of, 58 scaling, 58-64 DSL. See Digital subscriber line Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), 129, 139 improvements to, 78 E E-commerce, 131-132, 147 taxation issues in, 132n, 205, 208-209 E-mail, 5,131, 146, 192 E-rate program, 215 EC. See European Commission Economics of interconnection. See also Financial arrangements for interconnection; Supporting R&D recommendations for investigating, 21 Edge-based innovation, 4, 36 EDI. See Electronic data interchange Electronic data interchange (EDI), 147-148 Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 204 Emergency (911) calls, 81,172,175 Emerging Internet industries, collisions with existing industries, 15-17,151- 176 Employers, monitoring online activity, 192 Encryption, 193 IP-layer, 15 End systems, 37

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228 End-to-end architecture, 4 End-to-end latency, 103 End-to-end performance, 214 End-to-end service, 104 End-to-end transparency, 138-150 addressing issues in, 139-142 keeping the Internet open, 149-150 market and business influences on openness, 145-149 nonuniform treatment of bits, 142-145 End-user equipment, 154 Entertainment business, 47 Entry, barriers for innovation, lowering, 42 ESNET, 110 Estimating address use and demand, 71-75 European Commission (EC), 189 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), 133 addressing interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 166 European Union (KU) regulators, 110,188- 189, 204 Evolution of Internet standards allowing innovation, 132 of models for interconnection through multiple providers, 121-123 of pricing models, 4142 scenarios for future, 51-52,162-165 Existing industries, collisions with emerging Internet industries, 15-17, 151-176 F Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), 188n FCC. See Federal Communications . . Commlsslon FCRA. See Fair Credit Reporting Act Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 123, 170-171 opening radio-frequency spectrum, 49 ruling on CALEA and common carrier status, 173 Federal Trade Commission, 181 File transfer protocol (FTP), 134, 141 Filtering IP traffic, 143 publicizing ISPs' policies for, 25 Financial arrangements for interconnection, 115-118 discounts, 121 INDEX peer model, 116, 118-121 transit model, 116 Firewalls, 143 Frame Relay networks, lOOn Free Internet service providers, 111, 212 FTP. See File transfer protocol Funders, recommendations for collaboration with, 20-21 Future evolution scenarios for, 162-165 and success, 51-52 G Games, 1 Gateways, 154-155 General Services Administration, 204 Geographic perspective on Internet issues, recommendations for maintaining broad, 28 Government Paperwork Elimination Act, 204 Government policy responses, 25-28 creating laws and regulations that establish overall parameters only, 27-28 focusing laws and regulations on concerns identified, 27 maintaining broad geographic perspective on Internet issues, 28 monitoring Internet phenomena, 25-26 researching triggers for Internet intervention, 26 Growth in backbone capacity, 45 of the ISP market, 4648 Growth of the Internet, 5-10 quality of service, 9-10 robustness and reliability, 8-9 scaling challenges, 5-6 scaling up the address space, 6-8 H Hardware failures, 87 Harmonization, challenge of, 28 Hierarchy, DNS, 59 Hosting providers, 112 Hourglass model of Internet architecture, 4, 36-38, 127-128 HTTP, 6, 56-57,130, 134, 143

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INDEX I I-mode phone service, 50 JAB. See Internet Architecture Board ICANN. See Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Identity defined, 180 in public policy, 194-199 "Identity portability," 198 IEEE. See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IESG. See Internet Engineering Steering Group IETF. See Internet Engineering Task Force Industry sectors. See also Existing industries future of, 175-176 Infrastructure public key, 201-202 for routing, 85n trends in upgrading local access, 6, 49- 50 Innovation, 1, 124-138 edge-based, 4, 36 evolution of Internet standards setting, 132 the Internet as a platform for, 131-132 to keep the Internet interconnected and open, 13-15 lowering barriers to entry for, 42 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), standards from, 74,133 Integrated services (int-serv), quality-of- service mechanisms for, 102-103 Integrated Services over Specific Link Layers, 103 Interactive chat, 1 Interconnection of ISPs, 108 to keep the Internet open, 11-13 new models for, 1 to preserve the Internet, 107-124 Interconnection mechanisms and agreements, 112-118 considerations affecting decisions to enter into peering agreements, 118- 121 financial arrangements for, 11-12, 115- 118 logical routing, 11, 114-115 physical, 11, 113-114 229 Interconnection openness and transparency, 107-150 end-to-end transparency, 138-150 maintaining end-to-end service through multiple providers, 107-124 openness and innovation, 124-138 Interconnection through multiple providers, 107-124 evolution of interconnection models, 121-123 monitoring Internet interconnections, 123-124 structure of the Internet service provider industry, 109-112 Interfaces, 154 InterNAP, 122 International Data Corporation, 51 International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 133 International pressures for addresses, 75-76 International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 35, 133, 136, 204 Standardization Sector (ITU-T), addressing interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 166 Internet Architecture Board (IAB), 22, 43, 135, 139n Internet-based commerce, taxation issues in public policy, 205-209 Internet-based telephony, 1 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), 22-23, 43- 44, 59-60, 65-66 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), 43, 135 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) groups, 22, 35, 43, 77, 124-125 addressing interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 165-166 guidelines for, 88 standards process, 134-135 Internet industries, emerging, 15-17, 151- 176 Internet Mapping Project, 109n Internet marketplace, 41-43 lowering barriers to entry for innovation, 42 multiple and evolving pricing models, 4142 tippy markets, 14, 4243, 136 Internet portals, 61

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230 Internet Protocol. See IP Internet revolution, 1-2 Internet service providers (ISPs) free, 111 growth and diversification of markets for, 4648 hosting providers, 112 interconnecting, 108 interpositioning, 144 mergers among, 109 policies for filtering or prioritizing IP traffic, 25 role of, 3, 6-7 structure of the industry for interconnection through multiple providers, 109-112 tier 1,12-13,110-111,119, 122-124 value-stratification of customers by, 9, 105 Internet Society (ISOC), 135 Internet Software Consortium, 73 Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA), 207 Internet telephony, 15-16, 27, 118 Interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 165-170 addressing and number portability, 167-168 groups addressing, 165-166 robustness considerations, 169-170 signaling and control and service creation, 168-169 Interpositioning, ISP, 144 Intervention, triggers for Internet, 26 Investment, in deployment of IPv6 technology, 24 IOPS, 91, 94 IP-addressability, 74 IP-layer encryption, 15 IP technology, 31 IP telephony architectural contrasts with today's PSTN, 161-162 architectures for, 155-159 defined, 15-16, 152-154 groups addressing interoperation involving, 165-166 implications for telephony regulation 170-175 interoperation with the PSTN, 165-170 IPng. See IPv6 technology IPSec protocol, 15,142 INDEX IPv6 technology for addressing and configuration, 77-79 deploying, 7-8, 53, 70, 79-81 recommendations for investing in, 24 ISO. See International Organization for Standardization ISOC. See Internet Society ISPs. See Internet service providers ITFA. See Internet Tax Freedom Act ITU. See International Telecommunication Union Jitter, 99 reducing, 100-101 K Keeping the Internet interconnected and open, 10-15 access to the local loop, 11 innovation and transparency, 13-15 interconnection, 11-13 L Large customers, requirements of, 120n Latency, 99 end-to-end, 103 Latency-sensitive traffic, 104 Laws and regulations recommendations for creating, 27-28 recommendations for focusing on concerns identified, 27 Layering principle, 36n Level 3, 163 Links point-to-point, 108 wireless, 104 Local access infrastructure, 154 trends in upgrading, 49-50 Local area networks, wireless, 74 Local loop, access to, 11 Logical (routing) interconnection, 114-115 Long-term benefits, of open IP service, 24-25 Lowering barriers, to entry, for innovation, 42

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INDEX M Malicious attacks, 87 Management of addresses, 65-66 of the Domain Name System, 60-61 Marketplace-based research, developing and demonstrating Internet capabilities through, 21-22 Marketplace issues, 4143 growth and diversification of ISP markets, 4648 influence of end-to-end transparency on openness, 145-149 low barriers to entry for innovation, 42 market pressures, 56 multiple and evolving pricing models, 4142 tippy markets, 14, 4243, 136 MCI, 110 Media Gateway Control, IETF Working Group, 166 Mergers, among Internet service providers, 109, 145, 164 Microsoft, 43, 145 Modems cable, 31 dial-up, 32 Monitoring Internet interconnections, 123-124 persistent Internet phenomena, 25-26 Monopolistic positions, 13-14 Moore's law, 45 Multihoming, 114n Multimedia applications, 100 Multiple pricing models, 41-42 Multiple providers, interconnection through, 107-124 N Naming systems, scaling, 58-64 NANOG. See North American Network Operators Group National identifier, 195n National Infrastructure Protection Center, 84 National Laboratory for Applied Network Research (NLANR), 72 National Science Foundation (NSF), 45 231 National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC), 84, 86 National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), 211 Netscape Communications, 43 Netsizer project, 72-73 Network address translation (NAT), 7,15, 69-70, 76-77, 140-142 Network address translators (NATs), 24, 70, 141 Network operators, 88 recommendations for collaboration with, 20-21 Network Reliability and Interoperability Council (NRIC), 23, 96 Network Reliability Steering Committee, 94n Network Solutions, 65 Networks. See also Internet; Local area networks; Private networks ATM and Frame Relay, 100n best-effort, 9-10 role of, 34 television, 34 virtual overlay, 103 "NII Class Profiles," 214 NLANR. See National Laboratory for Applied Network Research North American Network Operators Group (NANOG), 43, 91, 94 NRIC. See Network Reliability and Interoperability Council NSF. See National Science Foundation NSFNet, 41, 55, 108n NSTAC. See National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee NTIA. See National Telecommunications and Information Administration Number portability, 167-168 Numerical addresses, 64 o Office of Management and Budget, 188 Online privacy, 185 Open access, and cable, 49 Open IP service, recommendations for long-term benefits of, 24-25

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232 Open specifications, 125 Open standards in the Internet, 124-138 business influences on, 145-149 critical open standards in the Internet, 126-130 Domain Name System, 129 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, 129 evolution of Internet standards setting, 132 recommendations for fostering the development of, 21 routing protocols, 129 Operational errors, 87 Operators, 22-25 cable, 49 considering long-term benefits of open IP service, 24-25 improving reliability and robustness, 24 improving reporting of outages, 9, 23 investing in deployment of IPv6 technology, 24 network, 20-21, 88 publicizing ISPs' policies for filtering or prioritizing IP traffic, 25 Optical fiber cables, 3 Organizations blocks of addresses held by, 7 Internet, 4344 NS/EP, 82 Outages, improving reporting of, 9, 23 Overall parameters, recommendations for creating laws and regulations which only establish, 27-28 Overlay networks, virtual, 103 p Packet switching, 45n, 115n Parameters, creating laws and regulations that only establish overall, 27-28 Peer model financial arrangements for interconnection, 116, 118-121 alternatives to, 124 Peer-to-peer applications, 47 distribution of information, 2 Peering agreements, 12,115,118-121 Performance objectives end-to-end, 214 seeking to establish, 28,106 Physical interconnection, 113-114 INDEX PKI. See Public key infrastructure Planning, uncertainty in, 2 Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P), 186-187, 197 Point-to-point links, 108 Policy approaches. See Public policy; Social policy concerns Portability, addressing, 167-168 Prefixes, routing, 66 Preserving the Internet, 107-150 end-to-end transparency, 138-150 maintaining end-to-end service through multiple providers, 107-124 openness and innovation, 124-138 Presidential Decision Directive 63, 84 President's Commission for Critical Infrastructure Protection, 84 Pressures for addresses, international, 75- 76 Pricing models, multiple and evolving, 41- 42 Prioritizing IP traffic, publicizing ISPs' policies for, 25 Privacy defined, 180 online, 185 policy and regulatory approaches to protection of, 187-190 in public policy, 180-190 setting preferences, 187 technical approaches to protection of, 186-187 Private networks, 70 IP telephony configurations using a dedicated, 158 Problem resolution, 121 Protocols, 3-4, 39n. See also individual protocols routing, 129 scaling of, 56-57 security, 142 PSINet, 118 PSTN. See Public switched telephone network P3P. See Platform for Privacy Preferences Public debate, about the Internet, 2, 27-28 Public exchanges, 113 Public Internet. See also Private networks defined, 30n IP telephony configurations using, 158 Public key cryptography, 201

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INDEX Public key infrastructure (PKI), 201-202, 204 Public policy issues, 177-215 anonymity, 190-194 authentication on the Internet, 199-204 identity, 194-199 privacy, 180-190 taxation of Internet-based commerce, 205-209 universal service, 209-215 Public switched telephone network (PSTN), 34, 83, 89 architectural contrasts with IP telephony, 161-162 evolving architecture of, 159-160 interoperation with IP telephony, 16-17, 151, 153-154, 165-170 Publicizing ISPs' policies, for filtering or prioritizing IP traffic, 25 Q Quality-of-service (QOS) mechanisms, 9-10, 102-103, 117 debate over, 105-106 differentiated services (diff-serv), 102 enhanced support for, 79 integrated services (int-serv), 102-103 measuring, 120 other approaches, 103 relative efficiency of, 101 technologies for, 100n Queuing, 99 Qwest, 163 R R&D, supporting on scaling challenges and reliability and robustness issues, 19- 20 Rate-adaptation mechanisms, 100 Realizing the Information Future, 126 Recommendations, 18-28 collaboration among researchers, funders, and network operators, 20- 21 considering long-term benefits of open IP service, 24-25 creating laws and regulations that establish overall parameters only, 27-28 233 for designers and operators, 22-25 developing and demonstrating Internet capabilities through marketplace- based research, 21-22 focusing laws and regulations on concerns identified, 27 fostering the development of open standards for the Internet, 21 for government policy responses, 25-28 improving reliability and robustness, 24 improving reporting of outages, 9, 23 investigating the economics of interconnection, 21 investing in deployment of IPv6 technology, 24 maintaining broad geographic perspective on Internet issues, 28 monitoring persistent Internet phenomena, 25-26 publicizing ISPs' policies for filtering or prioritizing IP traffic, 25 researching triggers for Internet intervention, 26 supporting R&D on scaling challenges and reliability and robustness issues, 19-20 for the technology base, 19-22 Redundancy, 114n Reengineering applications, 6 Regulatory approaches, 26. See also Laws and regulations; Telephony; individual regulatory agencies to privacy protection, 187-190 standards enforced under, 125 Reliability and robustness, 8-9, 81-98 in applications, 92-93 and auxiliary servers, 93-94 designing for, 82-83 improving, 24 integrating, 90-91 and more adaptive routing, 89-90 recommendations for supporting R&D on, 19-20 and reporting outages and failures, 9, 23, 94-98 and vulnerability of the Internet to attack, 84-89 Remailers, 192-193 Reporting of outages, recommendations for improving, 9, 23 Requests for comments (RFCs), 34-35, 134

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234 Researchers, recommendations for collaboration with, 20-21 Resource reservation protocol (RSVP), 102- 103 Revenue-neutral boundaries, for the Internet, 12-13 RFCs. See Requests for comments Robustness. See also Reliability and robustness and auxiliary servers, 93-94 considerations for interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 121, 169-170 principle of, 39-40 technologies to improve, 9 Route advertisements, 69,114 Route update messages, 67 Routing adaptive, 89-90 of data packets, 4, 12 infrastructure for, 85n protocols for, 32, 89,129 suppliers, 164 Routing interconnections, 104,114-115 Routing prefix, 66 Routing tables problems with, 121n scaling and address aggregation for, 66- (SNMP), 136 71 RSVP. See Resource reservation protocol Running out of addresses. See Scarcity of addresses INDEX managing addresses, 65-66 network address translation, 76-77 routing table scaling and address aggregation, 66-71 scarcity of addresses, 71-76 Scaling up the Internet, 53-106 building a better Internet, 53-54 improving quality of service, 98-106 improving reliability and robustness, 81-98 Scarcity of addresses, 8, 71-76 estimating address use and demand, 71-75 international pressures for addresses, 75-76 Security protocols, 142 Service creation at the edges, 170 for interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 168-169 Service delivery, 105 Services, 36 Signaling for interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 168-169 mechanisms for, 102-103 Simple Network Management Protocol S Safe harbor guidelines, 189 Sales tax law, 205n Scalability, 4 Scalable distributed and adaptive design, 4041 Scaling, 54-64 of capacity, 55 of the Internet's naming systems, 58-64 of protocols and algorithms, 56-57 recommendations for supporting R&D on challenges over, 19-20 Scaling challenges, 4-6 Scaling up the address space, 6-8, 64-81 deploying an IPv6 solution, 79-81 IPv6 a potential solution to addressing and configuration, 77-79 Single-purpose devices, rise in the use of, 50-51 Smart card, 203n SNMP. See Simple Network Management Protocol Social policy concerns, 18-19, 177-215 Softswitch Consortium, addressing interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 166 Software failures, 87 Specific Link Layers, 103 Specifications for an application programming interface, 124-125 for complete applications, 125 open, 125 Speed of light considerations, 98 Standards. See also Open standards in the Internet enforced under regulatory authority, 125 Stanford University, 75 Stateless transmission, 40

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INDEX Streaming audio and video, 100,118 Subsidy issue, 215n Success by design, 3-5 abstract features and principles, 3444 distributed design and decentralized control, 4 end-to-end architecture, 4 "hourglass" architecture, 4, 36-38, 127- 128 Internet organizations, role of, 43-44 the Internet's "hourglass" architecture, 36-38, 127-128 the robustness principle, 39-40 scalability, 4 scalable distributed and adaptive design, 4041 Supporting R&D, on scaling challenges and reliability and robustness issues, 19- 20 Sustaining the growth of the Internet, 5-10 quality of service, 9-10 robustness and reliability, 8-9 scaling challenges, 5-6 scaling up the address space, 6-8 T Tables. See Routing tables Taxation issues in e-commerce, 132n in public policy on Internet-based commerce, 205-209 TCP. See Transmission Control Protocol TDM. See Time division multiplexing Technical approaches, to protecting privacy, 186-187 Technologies communications, 4 to improve robustness, 9 IP, 31 quality-of-service, 100n work-around, 7 Technology base, 19-22 collaboration among researchers, funders and network operators, 20- 21 developing and demonstrating Internet capabilities through marketplace- based research, 21-22 fostering the development of open standards for the Internet, 21 235 investigating the economics of interconnection, 21 supporting R&D on scaling challenges and reliability and robustness issues, 19-20 Telco to IP architecture, 156 Telco to telco architecture, 156 Telcordia, 72-73 Telecommunications Act of 1996, 167n Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON), 166 Telephony, 15-17, 151-176 future of the Internet and other industry sectors, 175-176 implications of IP telephony for telephony regulation, 170-175 Internet-based, 1, 151-176 interoperation between IP telephony and the PSTN, 165-170 IP telephony defined, 152-154 new and evolving architectures for, 154- 162 scenarios for future evolution, 162-165 Television networks, 34 Third-generation (3G) wireless services, 7- 8,104 Tier 1 Internet service providers, 12-13, 110-111, 119, 122-124 Time division multiplexing (TDM), 162 Time Warner, America Online merger with, 145 TIPHON. See Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks Top-level domains, 62-63 Traffic, latency-sensitive, 104 Transit agreements, 12,114 Transit model financial arrangements for interconnection, 116 Translation, network address, 15, 69-70, 76- 77, 140-142 Translators, network address, 70,141 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), 98- 100, 126, 130-131n Transparency. See also End-to-end transparency to keep the Internet interconnected and open, 13-15 Trends in Internet development, 44-51 growing role for wireless services, 50

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236 growth and diversification of the ISP market, 4648 growth in backbone capacity, 45 rise in the use of single-purpose devices, 50-51 upgrading the local access infrastructure, 49-50 voice and data services, 50 Triggers for Internet intervention, recommendations for researching, 26 Troubleshooting, 121 Trunking, WDM-based, 113 Trust in Cyberspace, 84, 86-87 U UNINET, 76 Universal service issues concerns about, 210n in public policy, 209-215 Upgrading the local access infrastructure, trends in, 49-50 Usage of addresses, estimating, 71-75 "Use tax," 205n Users. See Customers V Value-stratification of customers, by ISPs, 9, 105 Vertical integration, 145-146 Video, streaming, 100 INDEX Virtual overlay networks (VONs), 103 Voice services quality-of-service requirements for, 101 trends in, 15, 47, 50 VONs. See Virtual overlay networks Vulnerability, of the Internet to attack, 84- 89 W WAP. See Wireless access protocol Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), 90, 113, 160 WDM-based bunking, 113 Web caching, 38 Web interface, 5 Wireless access protocol (WAP), 51,147 Wireless Access Protocol Forum, 136 Wireless links, 104 Wireless services growing role for, 50 local area networks, 74 third-generation, 7-8, 104 Work-around technologies, 7 World Wide Web, 2, 56 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 125, 134, 136, 148, 186-187, 197 WorldCom, 110 W3C. See World Wide Web Consortium X XML, 148