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Index A Abomasum amino acids, 69, 71, 73, 74, 75 calcium, 197 chloride, 123 displacement, 196-197 dry matter intake, 3, 197 iron, 138 milk fever, 191 phosphorus, 110 protein, 54, 63, 64, 67 sodium, 118 Acid-base balance, llO, 201 abomasum, 30 acidosis, 35, 193, 197-199 alkalosis, 123, 143, 192 amino acids, 85 blood, 106, 11O, 124,128 calcium, 106, 192 chloride, 123 dry matter intake, TO, 17 duodenum, 30 intestinal, 113, 145 magnesium, 128-129 milk fever, 192-193 phosphorus, llO, 113, 118 potassium, 124, 126, 127 proteins, 45, 47, 48, 52, 59, 61, 63 ruminal fermentation, 35, 36, 42, 118, 128-129, 185, 193, 197-199, COO, 201, 203, 23O, 237 acidosis, 35, 193, 197-199 alkalosis, 123, 143, 192 dry matter intake, TO, 17 neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 36-40 (passim) proteins, 45, 47, 59, 61 sodium, 118, 119 soil, cobalt uptake, 133 sulfates, 131 uterine, 52 water, 118, 180-181, 182 zinc, 145 see also Buffering agents Acid detergent fiber (ADF), 1, 36, 4O, 250 Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN), 61-62, 75, 250 Acidosis, 35, 193, 197-199 Activity, see Physical activity Additives, 3, 74, 117, 148, 171, 174, 181, 228-229 see also Supplements; specific additives Adenosine triphosphate, 118 Adrenal gland, 195 Age factors, see Life stages Alfalfa, 6-7, 18, TOO, 201, 283, 29O, BOO, 304 amino acids, 7O, 72, 74, 76 calcium, 107, 108 carbohydrates, 34-39 (passim), 251 phosphorus, 112 potassium, 125, 193 Alkalosis, 123, 143, 192 Almonds, 283, 29O, 304 Aluminum, 113, 129, 147, 148, 181, 182 Amino acids, 1, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48-49, 53-56 (passim), 63, 67, 69-85, 228 abomasum, 69, 71, 73, 74, 75 cellular processes, 53, 54, 69, 75 equations, 74-81, 83, 328-329 fats and, 70-71, 73, 83 fungi, 204 grass and legume forages, 7O, 72, 74, 76 growth factors, 69, 7O, 71-72, 75, 81, 85 intestinal processes, 1, 43, 55, 71, 73, 74-78, 82-83, 85, 246 ionophores, 203 363

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364 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle lactation, 70-73, 75, 81-85, 246 production of milk, 69, 70-73, 83 69, 7O, 81-85, 203, 246 , 74, 75 145, 246 metabolic processes. nitrogen and, 69, 71 peptides, 48-49, 54, potassium and, 124 pregnancy, 71, 81 ruminal processes, 43, 70-73 (passim), 75, 77-78, 82-83, 85, 131, 246 silage, 69, 7O, 74, 76, 80 sodium and, 118 supplements, 71, 74, 82 sulfur-containing, 131 tables of nutrient requirements, 290-303 weight factors, 71, 72, 75, 77, 82 zinc and, 145 see also Protein; specific amino acids Ammonia, 43, 45, 48, 49, 53, 54, 122, 187, 195, 244, 246, 311, 312 Anemia, 132, 133, 136, 138, 139 Anorexia, 12O, 121, 148 Apples, 283, 29O, 304 Arginine, 69, 71, 72, 74 Arsenic, 147, 182 Ash, 22, 114, 252, 283-289, 304-31O, 315 Ayrshire breed, 174, 332 , 75, 77, 78, 290-303, 328, 329 B B-vitamins, 131, 169-172, 173 see also specific B-vitamins Bacteria and bacterial processes amino acids, 69, 7O, 71, 72 ionophores, 45, 61, 129, 194, 201-203, 237-238 lactate, 185, 198, 203, 204 protein metabolism, 45, 46, 49, 53, 55, 67-68 sulfur, 131 water, 182 see also Ruminal processes Barley, 34, 35, 4O, 53, 72, 76, 251-252, 283, 29O, 30O, 304 Beef cattle, 235, 238, 239, 281 amino acids, 75 dry matter intake, 6 grazing, energy requirements, 21 ionophores, 202 magnesium, 129 manganese, 140 maintenance, energy requirements, 18-19 pregnancy, 68, 226 protein requirements, 44, 47, 55, 56, 61, 68, 75 sulfates, 132 veal calves, 214-215, 217, 220 vitamins, 172 Beet pulp, 34, 35, 4O, 44, 7O, 76, 283, 291, 296, 304 Behavioral factors fluorine, 148 dry matter intake, 8 heat stress, 21 magnesium deficiency, 194 unthriftiness, 115, 12O, 132 see also Eating and drinking behavior; Physical activity; Social behavior; Time factors Biotin, 169, 172, 173, 198 Birth, see Calving Blind staggers, 143 Blood, see Hematologic factors Blood meal and dried blood, 72, 74, 76 tables of nutrient requirements, 267, 269, 273, 275, 283, 291, 304 Body condition score (BCS), 22, 24-25, 202-203, 235, 241, 266-267 Body weight, see Weight factors Bone, of dairy cattle, 235 calcium, 106-107, 109, 11O, 165, 185 copper, 133, 136 fluorine, 148 macrominerals, general, 105 magnesium, 128 manganese, 139, 140 osteoporosis and osteomalacia, 106, 109, 116, 136 phosphorus, 11O, 111, 114, 115-116, 118, 165 sodium, 118 vitamins, 165 Bone meal, see Meat and bone meal Breed of animal, 332 copper absorption, 135 zinc deficiency, 146 see also Ayrshire breed; Beef cattle; Brown Swiss breed; Guernsey breed; Holstein breed; ;Jersey breed Brewers grain, 44, 53, 72, 76, 291 Brewers yeast, see Yeast Brown Swiss breed, 332 Buffering agents, 2, 197-205 (passim) carbohydrates, 36, 38, 40 phosphorus, llO, 118 proteins, 48, 59, 63 sodium, 119 Butyrate, 171, 189, 198, 199, 202, 203, 214, 219 Byproduct feeds, 34, 37, 55, 62, 7O, 283, 284, 290 minerals, 105 phosphorus, 114 vitamins, 171 see also specific byproduct feeds

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Index 365 C Cadmium, 105, 145, 148, 182 Calcium, 28, 31, 32, 105, 106-109, 145, 164, 190-191, 192, 195, 201, 322 abomasum, 197 bone of dairy cattle, 106-107, 109, 11O, 165, 185 calves, 223, 226, 331 cobalt and, 133 colostrum, 116, 184, 192 copper and, 135 equations, 107, 108, 112, 322 fluorine and, 148 growth, 107, 322 hormones and, 106, 117, 164 hypocalcemia, 106, 107, 109, 115, 116, 194, 195, 197 106 107 184 185 192 , intestinal processes, iodines, 137 lactation, 106, 107, 322 milk fever, 2, 106, 1 manganese and, 140 metabolism, 116, 195 milk content, 109, 192 milk fever, 2, 106, 116, 132, 164, 191-194, 195, 197 phosphorus and, 11O, 111, 113-114, 116, 117, 118, 195, 313 pregnancy, 107, 184, 190-192, 195, 197, 322 milk fever, 2, 106, 116, 132, 164, 191-194, 195, 197 retained placenta, 195 sulfates and, 131, 182 supplements, 108, 109, 114, 115, 145, 191, 193 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-28O, 293, 304-31O, 313 transition cows, 184 urine, 106, 322 water, 181, 182 zinc and, 145 Calves, 2, 214-233 amino acids, 71, 73 calcium, 223, 226, 331 chloride, 123, 223, 331 digestion and digestive tract, 214-218, 225-226, 227 dry matter intake, 214, 218, 219, 22O, 223, 224, 229, 33O, 331, 332 energy requirements, 214-221, 225-226, 229, 330-332 equations, 215, 219, 225, 226, 330-332 fats, 214, 22O, 221, 225, 227 hair, 22O, 222 immune system, 224, 227 ionophores, 202 iron, 139, 14O, 331 maintenance, 215, 221, 229 magnesium, 128, 223, 331 16, 132, 164, 191-194, 195, 197 manganese, 139, 14O, 331 metabolism, 214-22O, 225-226 milk replacers, 112, 169, 17O, 171, 173, TOO, 202, 204, 214-230 (passim) minerals, various, 112, 114, 123, 125, 128, 139, 14O, 143, 144, 222-224, 226, 227, 331 phosphorus, 112, 114, 223, 226, 331 potassium, 125, 128, 223, 331 protein, 215-218 (passim), 221-222, 226, 227, 228, 331-332; see also "milk replacers" supra ruminal processes, 214, 219, 229 selenium, 143, 223, 331 starter feed, 202, 214-220 (passim), 223, 229, 332 temperature factors, 220-221, 226, 228, 229, 330-331 transition cows, 2, 127, 174, 184-189, 195, 196, 214, 226, 238, 239 veal, 214-215, 217, 220 vitamins, 163, 167-168, 17O, 172, 173, 222, 223, 224-225, 226, 227, 331 water requirements, 18O, 182, 219, 221, 227-228, 230 weight factors, 114, 123, 139, 14O, 143, 167, 169, 173, 215-218, 22O, 221-222, 228, 229, 33O, 332 birth weight, 21, 68, 182, 226 zinc, 144, 145, 223, 331 see also Growing cattle and growth factors Calving, 22, 184, TOO, 192, 239, 32O, 325 birth weight, 21, 68, 182, 226 see also Pregnancy Canola, 53, 7O, 72, 74, 76, 283, 291, 301, 304-305 Carbohydrates, 1, 34-42, 47, 52-53, 54, 17O, 249-257 cellulose, 15, 36, 64, 11O, 131, 214 digestion and digestibility, 34, 35, 36, 249-255 (passim), 326 dry matter intake, 7-8, 35, 36, 38, 249, 251, 252, 253-254 equations, 18, 21, 234-238 lactation, 35-36, 38-39, 252, 253 production of milk, 35-36, 252-255 (passim) milk fat content and, 35-36, 37-4O, 252, 253 nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC), 14-15, 34-36, 37, 38, 39, 266-274, 28O, 326 ruminal processes, 34, 35, 38, 39, 52-53, 54, 198, 201 silage, 4, 34-40 (passim) supplements, 39, 40 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 280 vitamins and, 17O, 171 zinc and, 144 see also Acid detergent f~ber; Neutral detergent fiber; Starch Casein, 31, 71, 226 Cecum, 67 Cellular processes amino acids, 53, 54, 69, 75 calcium, 106

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366 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy CattIe carbohydrates, 34, 36 chromium, 146, 147 iron, 138 magnesium, 128 manganese, 139 phosphorus, llO, 111 potassium, 124 proteins, 44, 45, 47, 53, 54, 63, 75 sodium, 118 vitamins, 163, 167, 17O, 172-173 water, 178 zinc, 144 Cellulose, 15, 36, 64, 11O, 131, 214 Chewing, 36, 38, 39 Chlorine/chloride, 105, 118, 121-124, 126, 127, TOO, 148, 174, 181, 190-191, 195, 223, 311, 323 calves, 123, 223, 331 cobalt, 132 ferric, 138 growth, 122-123, 127, 323 lactation, 122-123, 126, 127, 323 potassium, 121, 125, 127, 312 pregnancy, 122, 190-191, 323 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 311, 312 urine, 121, 122, 123, 323 Choline, 73, 172, 173-174 Chromium, 105, 146-147, 182 Chylomicrons, 73 Citrus pulp, 7O, 284, 291, 305 Coat condition, see Hair Cobalt, 105, 132-133, 172, 182, 223, 226, 324, 331 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 312, 313 Coccidiosis, 202, 228-229 Cold stress, 21, 173, 179, 220-221, 241 Colostrum calcium, 116, 184, 192 calves, 227 chloride, 122 copper, 133 magnesium, 129, 130 manganese, 140 phosphorus, 129 vitamins, 168, 227 Computerized feeders, see Electronic feeders Computer models, 1, 2 body condition score, 24-25 CD-ROM, directions for use, 341-360 energy requirements, 14 neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 14 see also attached CD-ROM Concentrate feedstuffs, 190 amino acids, 75, 77 calcium, 108 carbohydrates, 37 see also Acid detergent fiber; Neutral detergent fiber dry matter intake, 7, 9, 10 energy requirements, 14, 18, 20 fat, 32 minerals, general, 105 phosphorus, 112 protein, 44, 61, 64, 65 starchy, 18 transition cows, 185 Copper, 105, 131, 132, 133-136, 141, 143, 145, 148, 182, 223, 226, 324, 331 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 312, 313 Corn, 7, 34, 35, 36-37, 39, 4O, 53, 71, 72, 73-74, 76, 82, 119, 163, 164, TOO, 193, 201, 251, 252-253 tables of nutrient requirements, 269, 273, 275, 282, 284, 285, 291-292, 301-302, 305 Cost factors, 238 amino acids, 43 chloride, 122 environmental pollution, 244, 247 feeding methods, 9 magnesium, 194 milk replacers, 228 minerals, 104-105, 114, 122, 194 overfeeding, 3 phosphorus, 114 pregnancy, 185 protein, 43, SO, 54-55 Cottonseed, 18, 34, 35, 53, 7O, 72, 76, 254 tables of nutrient requirements, 267, 269, 273, 275, 293, 302, 305-306 Crude fiber, 36 Cysteine and cystine, 69-7O, 131, 144, 145, 146, 290-303 D Diarrhea, TOO, 131, 139, 141, 225, 228 Digestion and digestibility, 14-17, 18, 24, 225 barley, 251 calcium, 106, 201 calves, 214-218, 225-226, 227 carbohydrates, 34, 35, 36, 249-255 (passim), 326 chewing, 36, 38, 39 chloride, 121 dry matter, 3, 7, 8, 18, 67, 131, 251, 252, 253 fats, 1, 8, 15, 28-3O, 32 fungi, 203 magnesium, 131, 201 molybdenum, 141

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Index 367 phosphorus, 110-114 (passim) potassium, 125 protein, 15, 43-44, 49, 74, 238, 326 see also "protein" under Ruminal processes sodium, 118, 119, 201 temperature factors, 21 vitamins, 166, 171, 225 water, 178 see also Abomasum; Colostrum; Duodenum; Excretion; Intestines; Omasum; Recticulorumen; Ruminal processes; Salivation; Total digestible nutrients Direct fed microbials, 203 Diseases and disorders abomasum, displacement, 196-197 acidosis, 35, 193, 197-199 alkalosis, 123, 143, 192 amino acids and, 71 anemia, 132, 133, 136, 138, 139 anorexia, 12O, 121, 148 blind staggers, 143 calcium def~ciency/excess, 106, 107, 109, 115, 116, 194, 195, 197 calving problems, 22 chloride def~ciency/excess, 122, 123 cobalt deficiency, 132 coccidiosis, 202, 228-229 cold stress, 21, 173, 179, 220-221, 241 copper deficiency, 135, 136 diarrhea, TOO, 131, 139, 141, 225, 228 eczema, 135 energy requirements and, 21, 22, 23 eye edema, 163 goiter, 137, 196 grass tetany, 194 heat stress, 21 hypoglycemia, 116 iodine deficiency, 137-138, 196 iron deficiency, 138, 145 ketosis, 171, 174, 188-189, 191, 202, 203 laminitis, 198-199 magnesium deficiency, 116, 129, 192, 194 manganese deficiency, 139, 140 mastitis, 118, 141, 143, 163, 167, 168, 189, TOO, 191, 198 metabolic, 2, 35, 71, 123, 133, 171, 186 see also Acidosis; Milk fever; Udder edema metritis, 194-195, 196, 198 milk fever, 2, 106, 116, 132, 164, 191-194, 195, 197 mineral deficiency, general, 1, 105, 147 osteoporosis and osteomalacia, 106, 109, 116, 136 phalaris staggers, 133 phosphorus deficiency, 114, 115-116, 117, 195 phosphorus toxicity, 116-117 placenta, retained, 194-196 polioencephalomalacia, 132, 172, 182 potassium deficiency, 123, 126-127 potassium toxicity, 127 selenium deficiency, 141, 143, 195-196 sodium deficiency, 119, 120-121 toxic minerals, 1, 105, 106, 148-149, 182 see also specific minerals udder edema, 2, 189-191 udder mastitis, 118, 141, 143, 163, 167, 168, 189, TOO, 191, 198 vitamin deficiency, 165-172 (passim), 195-196, 224 zinc deficiency, 144, 146 see also Immunologic response; Toxicity DMI, see Dry matter intake DNA, 147, 191, 204, 235 Drinking behavior, see Eating and drinking behavior Drinking water, see also Water and water requirements Dry cows, 6, 184-188, 318, 320-322 abomasum, 3, 197 acidosis, 198 amino acids, 75 body composition, 22 calcium, 109 chloride, 124 dry matter intake, 6, 188 energy requirements, 22, 24 ionophores, 202 maintenance requirements, 19, 24 phosphorus, 111, 116 potassium, 124 protein, 63-64, 68 sodium, 119, 124 vitamins, 164, 173 water intake, 179-180 see also Transition cows Dry matter intake (DMI), 1, 3-12, 18, 22, 147, 189, 245-246 amino acids, 73, 75, 77-78, 328 calcium, 109 calves, 214, 218, 219, 22O, 223, 224, 229, 33O, 331, 332 carbohydrates, 7-8, 35, 36, 38, 249, 251, 252, 253-254 CD-ROM application, 358 chloride, 122 chromium, 146 cobalt, 132, 133 copper, 135 digestion, 3, 7, 8, 18, 67, 131, 251, 252, 253 equations, 1, 3-6, 24O, 316, 319, 325-328 (passim), 33O, 331, 332 fats and, 6, 7-8, 9, SO, 31, 32, 184 fungi, 203

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368 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy CattIe growth, 6, 61, 128 heifers, 6, 8, TOO, 325-326 iodine, 137 ionophores, 202-203 iron, 139 lactation, 3, 4, 5-8, 9, 35, 36, 44, 49, 52, 53, 54, 83-85, 113, 115-117 (passim), 12O, 126, 127, 137, 201, 203, 260-268 production of milk, 3, 5-6, 9, 12O, 126, 202-203 magnesium, 128, 194 manganese, 140 molybdenum, 141 phosphorus, 111-115 (passim), 117 potassium, 124, 126 protein, 44, 49, 52, 53, 54, 61, 64, 65, 67, 77-78, 186-187, 222, 246 ruminal processes, 3, 8, 9-lO, SO, 31, 32 selenium, 142-143 sodium, 12O, 181 somatotropin, 204 sulfates, 132 tables of nutrient requirements, 259-27O, 276-28O, 283-299, 311-314 temperature and thermoregulation, 5-6, 9, 126, 221, 241, 325 transition cows, 184, 185-186 vitamins, 165, 168, 224 water and, 178-179, 18O, 181 weight and, 71, 72, 75, 77, 82 zinc, 145, 146 see also Forage, general; Grazing Duodenum amino acids, 70-71, 74, 75, 77-79, 82 fats, 200 phosphorus, 110 potassium, 124 protein, 63, 64, 74, 75, 77-79 sodium, 118 E Eating and drinking behavior alfalfa, 36, 39 chewing, 36, 38, 39 chloride deficiency, 123 corn, 36, 39 dry matter intake, 8-9 electronic feeders, 9 environmental factors, 2 sodium, 120 sulfur toxicity, 131-132 vitamins, 171 water, 2, 18O, 181 zinc deficiency, 146 see also Grazing; Dry matter intake; Salivation; Time factors Eczema, 135 Edema eye, 163 udder, 2, 189-190 Electrolytes, 118, 121-124 (passim), 227-228 see also specific electrolytes Electronic feeders, 9 Endocrine system, see Hormones and hormonal processes Energy requirements, 13-27, 234-24O, 258, 259 activity, 18, 20-21 calves, 214-221, 225-226, 229, 330-332 carbohydrates, 36, 252 chloride, 122 chromium, 146 dry cows, 186, 188 dry matter intake, 3, 4, 7-8, 18, 188 equations, 13-17, 15-16, 19, 21-22, 24, 215, 216, 219, 225, 226, 236, 238, 24O, 315-32O, 325, 326, 327, 33O, 331-332 fats, 13, 15, 22, 24, 25, 29, SO, 31 heifers, 20-21, 234-238 Holstein cattle, 21, 235, 237 ionophores, 202 lactation, 3, 13, 19, SO, 22, 24, 238 production of milk, 13, 19, 266, 268 magnesium, 129 maintenance, 13, 14, 17, 18-19, 21, 24, 318-319 metabolic processes, general, 13, 17, 19, SO, 215-22O, 237, 239-24O, 316-317 net energy (NE), 17-18, 19, 21-22, 24, 29-3O, 36, 214, 215-219, 225, 226, 234, 235-240 (passim), 252, 253, 316, 318-321 (passim), 332 tables of nutrient requirements, 258-268, 271-279 pasture topography, 9, SO, 21 pregnancy, 13, 21-22, 195, 226 retained placenta, 195 ruminal processes, 18, 53, 54, 58 silage, 14, 18, 25 tables of nutrient requirements, 258-28O, 281, 283-289 weight factors, 18, 21, 234-238 Environment, effects of cattle behavior/processing on, 2, 244-248 nitrogen, 244, 245-246 odors, 244 overfeeding, 3 phosphorus, 109-110 protein in diets, 50 urine, 244, 245 see also Water pollution Environment, effects on cattle, 1, 21, 224, 23O, 247

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Index 369 dry matter intake, 1, 5, 6 infectious diseases and, 198 metabolism, 2 water, 179 see also Pasture topography; Soil characteristics; Spatial factors; Temperature and thermoregulation; Weather; Wind Environmental Protection Agency, 139, 244 Enzymes and enzymatic processes amino acids, 45, 85 calcium, 106 calves, 214 carbohydrates, 34 copper, 133 magnesium, 128 manganese, 139 metalloenzymes, 105, 143-144 milk fat depression, 200 minerals, 105 oxidative stress, 191 potassium, 118, 124 proteins, 44, 45, 47, 48, 62, 63 selenium, 141 sodium, 118 vitamins, 164, 169, 17O, 171, 172 Equations, 2, 315-333 amino acids, 74-81, 83, 328-329 calcium, 107, 108, 112, 322 calves, 215, 219, 225, 226, 330-332 carbohydrates, 34, 4O, 326 chlorine, 323 copper, 133 corn grain, 315 dry matter intake, 1, 3-6, 24O, 316, 319, 325-328 (passim), 33O, 331, 332 energy, 13-17, 15-16, 19, 21-22, 24, 215, 216, 219, 225, 226, 236, 238, 24O, 315-32O, 325, 326, 327, 33O, 331-332 fat, 15, 16, 315, 327 forage parameters, 315 lactation, 4, 315, 318-321 (passim) magnesium, 128, TOO, 323 minerals, various, 105, 107, 108, 111, 112,: 13O, 133, 322-325, 329-330 phosphorus, 111, 112, 113, 247, 322-323 potassium, 13O, 323 pregnancy, 315 protein, 44, 46-47, 49-52, 56, 59, 61, 65, 66, 68-69, 74-81, 83-85, 185, 221, 238-239, 315, 316-317, 319, 32O, 326, 328, 331-332 starch, 315 vitamins, 325 water, 179-180 13, 128, weight, 236, 238-24O, 241, 315, 318-326 (passim), 33O, 332 Excretion, 2, 14 diarrhea, 13O, 131, 139, 141, 225, 228 phosphorus, 116 potassium, 127 sodium, 118 water, 178 see also Environment, effects on cattle; Feces; Salivation; Sweat; Urine and urinary factors F Fats and fatty acids, 1, 28-33, 35, 69, 76, 235 abomasal contractility, 197 amino acids and, 70-71, 73, 83 blood, 73, 203 body condition scoring, 24, 25, 235 calcium, 108 calves, 214, 22O, 221, 225, 227 combustion heat, 19, 24 digestion, 1, 8, 15, 28-3O, 32 dry matter intake and, 6, 7-8, 9, SO, 31, 32, 184 energy requirements, 13, 15, 22, 24, 25, 29, SO, 31 equations, 15, 16, 315, 327 fluorine, 148 fungi, 204 intestinal processes, 28, 29, 32, 199 ionophores, 203 lactation, 1, 30-32, 197, 260-266 production of milk, 30-32, 171 see also "milk fat content" infra liver, 8, 31, 132, 17O, 171, 184, 188-189, 195, 203 metabolism, 8, 28, SO, 31, 198 milk fat content, 9, 19, 31, 201, 204 amino acids and, 70-71, 73, 83 calcium and, 107 carbohydrates and, 35-36, 37-4O, 252, 253 depression, 199-201, 202 magnesium and, 130 minerals, general, 105 phosphorus and, 112, 115 rumen pH, 199 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-267 vitamins and, 17O, 174 minerals, general, 105 phosphorus and, 112, 113 ruminal processes, 8, 28, SO, 32, 58, 197, 198, 199-200 supplements, 17, 28, SO, 31, 32 tables of nutrient requirements, 259-265, 267, 285, 293, 306 tallow, 8, 15, 29, SO, 31, 228, 267, 284, 306 transition cows, 184, 185

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370 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle vitamins, water-soluble and, 17O, 171, 174 see also Oil and oilseeds Fat-soluble vitamins, 1-2, 162-169 see also Vitamin A; Vitamin D; Vitamin E; Vitamin K Feather meal, 72, 76, 284, 293, 306 Feces, 4, 245, 247 calcium, 322 chloride, 121, 122, 123, 323 copper, 135, 324 diarrhea, TOO, 131, 139, 141, 225, 228 fatty acid, 15 magnesium, 129, 323 manganese, 140 minerals, various, 105, 321-325 phosphorus, 111, 112, 247, 322 potassium, 124, 14O, 323 protein, 44, 63, 67, 68 sodium, 118, 119, 323 vitamins, 166 water, 178, 179 zinc, 144, 324 see also Environment, effects on Fermentation, ruminal, see Ruminal processes Fermented feeds, 4, 6, 201 amino acids, 45, 69, 70 carbohydrates, 4, 34, 35 energy requirements, 14, 18, 25 fat, 30 lysine, 1, 55, 69, 71, 72-74, 77, 78, SO, 81-85, 246, 290-303, 329 phosphorus, 111 threonine, 69, 72, 75, 77, 79, 290-303, 329 tryptophan, 69, 72, 75, 290-303, 329 see also Silage Fertilizers, 105, 128, 142, 148, 149, 246-247 Fetal nutrition, 21-22, 68, 184, 185, 226-227 iodine, 137, 138 magnesium, 129 manganese, 139, 140 minerals, 105 potassium, 125 selenium, 141, 142 sodium, 119 vitamins, 163, 167 water, 178 see also Placenta; Uterus Fish meal and byproducts, 44, 46, 47, 51, 74, 76, 142, 173, 199, BOO, 284, 293, 306 Fluorine, 105, 148-149, 182, 314 Folic acid, 169, 172, 173 Food and Drug Administration, 138, 143, 204 Forage, general, 9, 18, SO, 44, 105 amino acids, 7O, 71, 72 cadmium, 148 cobalt deficiency, 133 fungi, 203-204 magnesium, 128-129 milk fat depression, 200 molybdenum, 141 particle size, 37, 38, 39, 46, 58, 59, 214 phosphorus, 112, 115 potassium, 190 selenium, 142 sodium, 119, 190 vitamins, 166, 167, 172 see also Grain crop forages; Grass and legume forages; Grazing; Silage; specific forages Fungi, 45, 55, 149, 168, 195, 198, 203-204 G Genetic factors chromium, 147 DNA, 147, 191, 204, 235 somatotropin, 204 see Breed of animal Gestation, see Calving; Pregnancy Glucose, 49, 129, 131, 137, 146, 172, 174, 184, 189, 199, 202, 203 Glutamine, 7O, 71 Glycerol, 16 Goiter, 137, 196 Grain crop forages, general, 34, 35, 4O, 53, 72, l9O, 197, 201, 251 acidosis, 35, 193, 197-199 calcium, 108 milk fat depression, 199, 200 phosphorus, 114 protein, 44, 53 sodium, 121 tables of nutrient requirements, 283, 287, 291, 303 transition cows, 185 vitamins, 171, 172 see also specific grains Grass and legume forages, 39, 201, 249, 251 amino acids, 7O, 72, 74, 76 copper, 135 magnesium, 128-129 nitrogen, 44-45, 49 tables of nutrient requirements, 266, 269, 273, 275, 281-282, 283, 285, 286, 287, 291, 293-296, 304, 306-308 vitamins, 168 see also Alfalfa; Grazing; Hay; Silage Grass tetany, 194 Grazing copper, 135 energy requirements, 9, 20-21

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Index 371 ionophores, 203 magnesium, 128-129, 194 nitrogen, 44-45, 49 salivation, 39-4O, 128-129 supplemental grain in pasture, 20 vitamins, 163, 172 see also Grass and legume forages; Pasture topography; Soil characteristics Growing cattle and growth factors, 22, 216, 228, 234-243, 319-320 amino acids, 69, 7O, 71-72, 75, 81, 85 cadmium, 148 calcium, 107, 322 chloride, 122-123, 127, 323 cobalt, 132 copper, 324 dry matter intake, 6, 61, 128 fungi, 203 ionophores, 202 manganese, 139, 140 minerals, various, 105, 322-325 phosphorus, 111, 112, 114, 116, 117, 324 potassium, 125, 127, 323 pregnant cows, 68, 185 protein, 1, 61, 68-69, 7O, 85, 186-187, 234, 236-238, 320 sodium, 119, 127, 323 somatotropin, 204 sulfates, 131-132 transition cows, 184, 185, 186-187 vitamins, 163, 17O, 171 water, 227 zinc, 146, 325 see also Calves; Life stages; Weight factors Guernsey breed, vitamins, 162-163 H Hair calves, 22O, 222 copper deficiency, 136 iodine, 137 manganese, 140 nitrogen secretion, 67 potassium deficiency, 126 vitamins, 171 Hay, 35, 45, 251 amino acids, 7O, 76 calcium, 107 copper, 134 phosphorus, 112, 164 tables of nutrient requirements, 266, 269, 273, 275, 286, 287, 293-296, 297, 306, 307, 308 vitamins, 162, 168 Heat processing, feed, 54-55, 62, 252, 253-255 Heat stress, 5-6, 21, 119, 126, 179, 181, 241, 325 see also Sweat Heifers, 2, 188, 234, 242, 258-259, 318-319 CD-ROM application, 356-360 copper, 133 dry matter intake, 6, 8, TOO, 325-326 energy requirements, 20-21, 234-238 feed-bunk space, 8-9 grazing, 20-21 growth, 234-239 iodine, 136-137 ionophores, 202 manganese and, 14O, 141 phosphorus, 114, 117 protein, 234-238 sodium, 119 vitamins, 166, 167-168 water intake, 18O, 182 weight, 6, 234-242 see also Pregnancy Hematologic factors, 227 acid-base balance, 106, llO, 124, 128 aluminum, 129 calcium, 106-107, 165, 184, 197 milk fever, 2, 106, 116, 132, 164, 191-194, 197 chloride, 121, 123 copper, 133, 136 fatty acids, 73, 203 iodine, 138 ionophores, 203 iron, 133, 138-139 ketosis, 171, 174, 188-189, 191, 202, 203 magnesium, 128, 194 manganese, 139-140 molybdenum, 141 nitrogen, 52 phosphorus, llO, 114, 115, 116 potassium, 124, 125, 126, 128 protein, 228 selenium, 142, 143, 196 sodium, 118-119, 120 sulfates, 182 transition cows, 184 urea, 43, 48, 49, 52, 53, 131 vitamins, 162-169 (passim), 173, 196 water, 178, 182 zinc, 145, 146 see also Kidneys; Liver Hepatic processes, see Liver Hereford breed, phosphorus, 117 Histidine, 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 145, 290-303, 329 Holstein breed, 185, 227, 235, 239, 332 amino acids, 74

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372 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle body condition score, 24-25 calcium, 192, 197 carbohydrates, 39 CD-ROM application, 357 copper absorption, 135 dry matter intake, 4-5, 6 energy requirements, 21, 235, 237 magnesium, 129 milk fat, 39 phosphorus, 111-112, 114 potassium, 126 protein, 63, 235, 239 sodium, 121, 181 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-269 water, 181 Homeostasis calcium, 106-107, 109, 117, 118, 164, 165 milk fever, 2, 106, 116, 132, 164, 191-194, 195, 197 chloride, 121-122 magnesium, 194 manganese, 139-140 phosphorus, 11O, 117-118, 164, 165 potassium, 124 sodium, 118-119, 121 vitamins, 164, 165 Hormones and hormonal processes adrenal gland, 195 aluminum, 129 calcium, 106, 117, 164 fats and, 31 insulin, 31, 116, 146, 184 iodine, 136-137 ionophores, 202 magnesium, 194 minerals, general, 105 pancreas, chloride, 121 insulin, 31, 116, 146, 184 parathyroid gland, 106, 129, 184, 191-192, 193-194 phosphorus, 117 proteins, 52 retained placenta, 195 sodium, 119 somatotropin, 3, TO, 204-205 steroids, 172, 173, TOO, 195 thyroid gland, 136-138 transition cows, 184, 186 vitamins, 164 zinc, 144 Hypercalcemia, 106 Hyperthermia, see Heat stress Hypocalcemia, 106, 107, 115, 194, 195, 197 see also Milk fever Hypochloremia, 123 Hypoglycemia, 116 Hypokalemia, 123, 126-127 Hypomagnesemia, 116, 129, 192, 194 Hyponatremia, 123 Hypophosphatemia, 115-116 Hypothermia, see Cold stress I Ileum, 67, 121, 123 Immunologic response calves, 224, 227 chromium, 146 cobalt deficiency, 132 copper, phagocytes, 133 mastitis, 118, 141, 143, 163, 167, 168, 189, TOO, 191, 198 metritis, 194-195, 196, 198 milk fever, 2, 106, 116, 132, 164, 191-194, 195, 197 pregnant cows, 195 transition cows, 185 vitamins, 163, 164, 167, 169, 224 zinc, 144, 146 Inositol, 169-170 Insulin, 31, 146, 184 hypoglycemia, 116 Intestines acid-base balance, 113, 145 amino acids, 1, 43, 55, 71, 73, 74-78, 82-83, 85, 246 calcium, 106, 107, 184, 185, 192 chloride, 121 chromium, 146 copper, 135 fats, 28, 29, 32, 199 fungi, 204 ileum, 67, 121, 123 iron, 138 jejunum, llO, 124 magnesium, 128 phosphorus, llO, 113, 164 potassium, 124, 127 protein, 43, 44, 55, 62, 63, 67, 68, 74-78, 144, 246, 258-259 sodium, 118 sulfates, 131 transition cows, 184 vitamins, 162, 164, 171, 174, 192 water, 178 zinc, 135, 144 see also Cecum; Duodenum Iodine, 29, SO, 105, 136-138, 195, 196, 223, 324, 331 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-310 Ionophores, 45, 61, 129, 194, 201-203, 237-238

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Index 373 Iron, 105, 113, 134, 135, 138-139, 14O, 145, 181, 182, 223, 324 calves, 139, 14O, 331 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 313 Isoleucine, 69, 72, 73-74, 75, 77, 78, 290-303 J Jejunum, llO, 124 Jersey breed calcium, 197 copper absorption, 135 dry matter intake, 5 milk fever, 192 tables of nutrient requirements, 268-269 Journal of Dairy Science carbohydrates, 36 dry matter intake, 4 proteins, 44 K Ketosis, 171, 174, 188-189, 191, 202, 203 Kidneys cadmium, 145, 148, 185 calcium, 106, 184 chloride, 121 copper, 145 phosphorus, 116 potassium, 124 sodium, 118-119, 122 sulfates, 131, 182 urea, 43, 48, 49, 52, 53, 131 vitamins, 164, 166, 170 zinc, 145 L Lactation and lactating cattle, 2, 4, SO, 184, 185, 197, 258, AGO, 318, 319, 320 amino acids, 70-73, 75, 81-85, 246 bacteria, 185, 198, 203, 204 body composition, 22, 202-203 cadmium, 148 calcium, 106, 107, 322 milk fever, 2, 106, 116, 132, 164, 191-194, 195, 197 carbohydrates, 35-36, 38-39, 252, 253 CD-ROM application, 354-356 chloride, 122-123, 126, 127, 323 chromium, 146 copper, 133, 324 dry matter intake, 3, 4, 5-8, 9, 35, 36, 44, 49, 52, 53, 54, 83-85, 113, 115-117 (passim), 12O, 126, 127, 137, 201, 203, 260-268 production of milk, 3, 5-6, 9, 12O, 126, 202-203 energy requirements, 3, 13, 19, 2O, 22, 24, 238 equations, 4, 315, 318-321 (passim) fats, 1, 30-32, 197, 260-266 fungi, 203 iodine, 137, 324 ionophores, 202-203 magnesium, 194, 323 manganese, 140 mastitis, 118 minerals, various, 105, 322-325 moisture, 6-7 neutral detergent fiber, 7 phosphorus, 112-117 (passim), 126, 323 potassium, 124, 125-126, 127, 323 protein, 1, 49-52, 53, 55, 56, 64, 68, 81-85, 107, 260-266 selenium, 143 sodium, 118, 119, 12O, 121, 126, 127, 180-181, 201, 323 somatotropin, 204 tables of nutrient requirement, 258, 260-269, 272-275 vitamins, 163-164, 165, 167, 168, 17O, 172, 174 water, 178-179, 181 zinc, 144-145, 325 see also Colostrum; Dry cows; Production, milk; Udder edema Lactobacillus, 185, 198, 203, 204 Lactose, 19, 181, 184, 202, 224, 226, 228, 267 Lambs, see Sheep and lambs Laminitis, 198-199 Lead, 105, 149, 182 Legume forages, see Grass and legume forages Leucine, 69, 72, 75, 77, 78, 290-303, 329 see also Isoleucine Life stages, 1 copper, 133 dry matter intake, 8, 9 milk fever, 192 potassium, 125, 126 social behavior, 8 somatotropin, 204 water, 178 zinc, 144 see also Calves; Growing cattle and growth factors; Heifers; Lactation and lactating cattle; Transition cows Lignin, 14, 18, 36, 46, 131, 250-251, 281, 283-289, 315 Lignosulfonate, 55 Linoleic acid, 31, 129, 199-200 Linolenic acid, 129. 199 Linseed, 72, 287, 296, 302, 308 Lipoproteins, 73, 17O, 188, 189

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374 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy CattIe Liver amino acids, 73 cadmium, 145, 148 cobalt deficiency, 132 copper, 133, 135, 136, 145 dry matter intake, 8 fats, 8, 31, 132, 17O, 171, 184, 188-189, 195, 203 iron, 135 ionophores, 203 manganese, 139-140 protein, 195 transition cows, 184 urea production, 52 vitamins, 164, 17O, 171 zinc, 145, 146 Lysine, 1, 55, 69, 71, 72-74, 77, 78, SO, 81-85, 246, 290-303, 329 Lysolecithin, 28 M Macrominerals, 1, 105, 106-132, 329-330 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 311-314 see specific macrominerals Magnesium, 32, 105, 108, 116, 128-131, 133, 181, 182, 192, 201, 324 equations, 128, TOO, 323 nitrogen and, 129, 194 reticulorumen, 128, 194 ruminal processes, 128-129, 194 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 311, 312 urine, 129, 13O, 323 Maintenance, 239-242 amino acids, 7O, 81 calcium, 107 calves, 215, 221, 229 chloride, 122 energy requirements, 13, 14, 17, 18-19, 21, 24, 318-319 heat stress, 21 iodine, 137 iron, 138 minerals, general, 105 phosphorus, 110-111, 112 physical activity, 18, 20-21 potassium, 124-125 protein metabolism, 1, 67-68 sodium, 119 total digestible nutrient (TDN), 16 vitamins, 165-166, 167 see also Temperature and thermoregulation Manganese, 105, 112, 139-14O, 141, 181, 182, 226 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 312, 313 Mastitis, 118, 141, 143, 163, 167, 168, 189, TOO, 191, 198 Meat and bone meal, 44, 47, 72, 76, 109, 148, 287, 296, 308, 311 Mercury, 105, 149, 182 Metabolic processes, general, 2, 191, 201, 240-241 amino acids, 69, 7O, 81-85, 203, 246 calcium, 116, 195 calves, 214-22O, 225-226 copper, 133, 145, 146 direct fed microbials, 203 dry matter intake, 8, 111 energy requirements, general, 13, 17, 19, SO, 215-22O, 237, 239-24O, 316-317 fats, 8, 28, SO, 31, 198 heat stress, 21 phosphorus, 111, 116, 195 protein, 1, 43, 66, 67-69, 7O, 81-85, 144, 266, 357 selenium, 141 sodium, 118 tables of nutrient requirements, 259-27O, 276-28O, 283-289 vitamins, 164, 165 water intake, 178, 180 zinc, 143-144, 145 see also Digestion and digestibility; Enzymes and enzymatic processes; Hematologic factors; Hormones and hormonal processes; Liver; Ruminal processes; Vitamins Metalloenzymes, 105, 143-144 Metallothionein, 135, 146, 148 Methane, 173, 185, 202, 218, 226, 244 Methionine, 1, 69-7O, 71, 72-74, 75, 77, 78, 81-85, 131. 169, 172, 173, 174, 246, 290-303, 329 Metritis, 194-195, 196, 198 Milk fever, 2, 106, 116, 132, 164, 191-194, 195, 197 Milk production, see Lactation and lactating cattle; Production, milk Milk replacers, 112, 169, 17O, 171, 173, TOO, 202, 204, 214-230 (passim) Minerals, 1, 105-161, 190-191, 266, 329-330 calves, 112, 114, 123, 125, 128, 139, 14O, 143, 144, 222-224, 226, 227, 331 cost of, 104-105, 114, 122, 194 equations, various minerals, 105, 107, 108, 111, 112, 113, 128, TOO, 133, 322-325, 329-330 growth, 105, 322-325 pregnancy, various minerals, 105, 322-325 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 311-314

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Index 375 see also Vitamin A; Vitamin D; Vitamin E; Macrominerals; Toxic minerals; Trace minerals; specific minerals Models, see Computer models; Equations Moisture dry matter intake, 6-7 magnesium, 129, 194 see also Water and water requirements Molasses, 76, 194, 249, 287, 296, 308 Molybdenum, 105, 134-135, 136, 140-141, 281, 304-310 Muscle contraction, 106, 124, 141 grass tetany, 194 N Nervous system cobalt, 133 macrominerals, general, 105 magnesium, 128 phalaris staggers, 133 polioencephalomalacia, 132, 172, 182 potassium, 124 sulfates, 131, 132 vitamins, 163, 171, 172 Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 1, 3, 7, 14, 18, 34, 35, 36-4O, 44, 46, 198, 199, 204, 249-25O, 251, 252, 315 tables of nutrient requirements, 281, 282, 283-289, 294-296 Niacin, 170-171, 172, 173 Nickel, 147, 182 Nitrogen and nitrates, 19, 31, 221, 222, 244, 245-246, 25O, 300-303 acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN), 61-62, 75, 250 amino acids and, 69, 71, 74, 75 cobalt nitrate, 132 environmental effects, 244, 245-246 fungi, 204 magnesium and, 129, 194 phosphorus and, 110 proteins and, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48-49, 52-53, 56, 57, 59, 62, 63-65, 67, 246 sulfur and, 131 urea, 43, 48, 49, 52, 53, 131 urine, 67, 178, 245 water, 181 zinc and, 145 Nonf~ber carbohydrates (NFC), 14-15, 34-36, 37, 38, 39, 266-274, 28O, 326 Nonlactating cows, see Dry cows Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), 34, 35-36, 53, 249, 251 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 6, 44, 47, 55, 56, 61, 75, 129, 14O, 235, 238, 239, 281 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 43, 69 Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 43, 69 o Oats, 7O, 72, 76, 253, 287, 297, 308 Odors, 244 Oil and oilseeds, 18, 28, SO, 31, 34, 199, 200 dry matter intake, 8, 30 palm oil, calcium content, 108 phosphorus, 114 proteins, 54, 55 tables of nutrient requirements, 285, 293, 306 see also specific oilseeds Omasum, 64, 11O, 118 Ornithine, 71 Osmotic pressure, 105, 124 Osteoporosis and osteomalacia, 106, 109, 116, 136 p Pancreas chloride, 121 insulin, 31, 116, 146, 184 Pantothenic acid, 171, 173 Parathyroid gland, 106, 129, 184, 191-192, 193-194 Pasture grazing, see Grazing; Soil characteristics Pasture topography, 9, SO, 21 Peanut meal, 72, 287, 297, 309 Pectin, 34 Peptides, 48-49, 54, 145, 246 Perspiration, see Sweat pH, see Acid-base balance Phalaris staggers, 133 Phenylalanine, 69-7O, 72, 73-74, 75, 77, 78-79, 290-303, 329 Phosphates, 106, 114, 118, 125, 148 equations, 111, 112, 113, 247, 322-323 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 311 Phosphorus, 105, 109-118, 112, 126, 14O, 147, 164, 193, 195, 223, 226, 244, 246-247, 322-323 bone of dairy cattle, llO, 111, 114, 115-116, 118, 165 calcium and, 11O, 111, 113-114, 116, 117, 118, 195, 313 growth, 111, 112, 114, 116, 117, 324 homeostasis, 11O, 117-118, 164, 165 intestinal processes, llO, 113, 164 lactation, 112-117 (passing, 126, 323 metabolic processes, 111, 116, 195 pregnancy, 111-112, 116, 117, 195, 226, 322 salivation, llO, 111, 112, 113, 116

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376 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy CattIe soil, 115, 246-247 supplements, 112, 114, 115, 116 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 311, 313 urine, 111, 112, 116, 247, 322 weight factors, 110-114 (passim), 1 Physical activity, 18, 20-21, 239-240 pasture topography, 9, SO, 21 17 see also Eating and drinking behavior; Grazing Phytate, 108, 114 Pigs, see Swine Pituitary gland, 195 somatotropin, 3, TO, 204-205 Placenta, 68, 185, 191 magnesium, 129 manganese, 140 phosphorus, 111 retained, 194 selenium, 142, 195-196 vitamins, 169, 195-196, 226 Polioencephalomalacia, 132, 172, 182 Potassium, 105, 113, 114, 118, 124-128, TOO, 192, 193 chloride and, 121, 125, 127, 312 equations, TOO, 323 growth, 125, 127, 323 iodines, 137 lactation, 124, 125-126, 127, 323 magnesium and, TOO, 194 manganese and, 140 sodium and, 12O, 121 sulfates and, 131 supplements, 125, 126, 128 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-28O, 304-31O, 312, 313 urine, 124, 125, 127, 178, 323 vitamins, 168 weight factors, 124-128 (passim) Poultry, 43, 69 see also Feather meal Pregnancy, 184, 185, TOO, 195, 229, 242, 321 abomasum, displacement, 196-197 amino acids, 71, 81 cadmium, 148 calcium, 107, 184, 190-192, 195, 197, 322 milk fever, 2, 106, 116, 132, 164, 191-194, 195, 197 CD-ROM application, 360 chloride, 122, 190-191, 323 chromium, 146 cobalt, 226 conception, 22, 31, 52, 68, 117, 238, 239 copper, 226, 324 dry matter intake, 4, 6, 117, 139, 185-186, 197 energy requirements, 13, 21-22, 195, 226 growth of pregnant cows, 68, 185 ionophores, 203 iron, 138, 139, 324 magnesium, 129, 323 manganese, 14O, 226 minerals, various, 105, 322-325 multiparous, 8, 9, 68, 83, 111, 146, 169, 187, 227 phosphorus, 111-112, 116, 117, 195, 226, 322 potassium, 125 primiparous, 8, 83, 146 protein, 1, 63-64, 68, 184, 186-188, 195 selenium, 142, 143, 195-196, 226 sodium, 119, TOO, 323 sulfates, 143 udder edema, 189-190 vitamins, 163, 164, 165, 167-168, 169, 17O, 172, 195-196, 227 water, 178 weight factors, 68, 117, 239, 259 zinc, 144, 226, 325 see also Calving; Dry Transition cows; Uterus Probiotics, see Direct fed microbials Production, milk abomasum, displacement, 196-197 amino acids, 69, 70-73, 83 cadmium, 148 carbohydrates, 35-36, 252-255 (passim) chloride, 122, 123 chromium, 146 copper, 133, 134 dry matter intake, 3, 5-6, 9, TOO, 126, 202-203 energy, 13, 19 tables of nutrient requirements, 266, 268 fat and, 30-32, 171 feeding frequency, 10 fungi, 203-204 ionophores, 202-203 magnesium, 194 minerals, general, 105 phosphorus, 114, 115, 117 potassium, 124, 126, 127 protein, 49-52, 7O, 238 sodium, 119, TOO, 121, 181, 201 somatotropin, 204-205 tables of nutrient requirements, 260-269 udder edema, 189 vitamins, 163-164, 165, 166, 170-171 water, 178-179, 181 see also Lactation and lactating cattle Proline, 70-71 Protein, 1, TO, 18, 22, 43-65, 83, 185, 234-239, 252 abomasum, 54, 63, 64, 67 animal protein meals, 15, 16 bacteria and metabolism of, 45, 46, 49, 53, 55, 67-68 cows; Fetal nutrition; Placenta;

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Index 377 beef cattle, 44, 47, 55, 56, 61, 68, 75 body condition scoring, 24, 25 calves, 215-218 (passim), 221-222, 226, 227, 228, 331-332; see also "milk replacers" casein, 31, 71, 226 CD-ROM application, 356, 357 cellular processes, 44, 45, 47, 53, 54, 63, 75 chloride and, 121 combustion heat, 19, 24 copper and, 136 cost factors, 43, SO, 54-55 digestion, 15, 43-44, 49, 74, 238, 326 see also "protein" under Ruminal processes dry cows, 63-64, 68 dry matter intake, 44, 49, 52, 53, 54, 61, 64, 65, 67, 77-78, 186-187, 222, 246 equations, 44, 46-47, 49-52, 56, 59, 61, 65, 66, 68-69, 74-81, 83-85, 185, 221, 238-239, 315, 316-317, 319, 32O, 326, 328, 331-332 growth requirements, 1, 61, 68-69, 7O, 85, 186-187, 234, 236-238, 320 Holstein cattle, 63, 235, 239 intestines, 43, 44, 55, 62, 63, 67, 68, 74-78, 144, 246, 258-259 iron and, 138 lactation, 1, 49-52, 53, 55, 56, 64, 68, 81-85, 107, 260-266 production of milk, 49-52, 7O, 238 lipoproteins, 73, 17O, 188, 189 metabolic processes, 1, 43, 66, 67-69, 7O, 81-85, 144, 266, 357 milk, content, 19, 31, 43, 44, 49, SO, 51, 201, 252 amino acids and, 69-73 (passim), 83-85 calcium and, 107 phosphate and, 115 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-267 milk replacers, 112, 169, 17O, 171, 173, TOO, 202, 204, 214-228 (passim) nitrogen and, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48-49, 52-53, 56, 57, 59, 62, 63-65, 67, 246 pregnancy, 1, 63-64, 68, 184, 186-188, 195 retained placenta, 195 ruminal processes, 43, 44, 45-48, 50-7O, 75, 77-81, 85, 131, 136, 222, 234, 237-238, 328-329 CD-ROM application, 356 tables of nutrient requirements, 258-28O, 290-303 sheep and lambs, 53, 59, 64, 67 silage, 45, 49, 59, 61, 131 somatotropin, 3, TO, 204-205 sulfates and, 131 supplements, general, 74, 76, 144 steers, 63-64, 235 tables of nutrient requirements, 258-28O, 281, 283-299, 300-303, 311-314 transition cows, 184, 186-188 vitamins and, 168, 17O, 172 water and, 179, 180 weight factors, 44, 65, 68-69, 75, 77, 186-187, 215, 234, 235, 236-238 whey, 15, 72, 222, 226, 228, 289, 298, 310 zinc and, 144 see also Amino acids Protozoa, 45-46, 55, 7O, 72 R Rapeseed, 53, 76, 303 Renal processes, see Kidneys Reproductive processes amino acids, 70 conception, 22, 31, 52, 68, 117, 238, 239 dry matter intake, 8, 9, 117 fat supplements, 31 ionophores, 202, 203 multiparous, 8, 9, 68, 83, 111, 146, 169, 187, 227 phosphorus, 117 primiparous, 8, 83, 146 protein requirements, 52, 68, 70 vitamins, 163, 167 zinc deficiency, 146 see also Calving; Feral nutrition; Lactation and lactating cattle; Placenta; Pregnancy; Uterus Reticulorumen, 3, 44 calves, 214 copper, 136 fats, 197 magnesium, 128, 194 Riboflavin, 171, 173 Rice, 7O, 288, 297, 309 Ruminal processes, 1 acid-base balance, 35, 36, 42, 118, 128-129, 185, 193, 197-199, COO, 201, 203, 23O, 237 acidosis, 35, 193, 197-199 neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 36-40 (passim) proteins, 45, 47, 59, 61 dry matter intake, TO, 17 aluminum, 129 amino acids, 43, 70-73 (passim), 75, 77-78, 82-83, 85, 131, 246 calcium, 106 calves, 214, 219, 229 carbohydrates, 34, 35, 38, 39, 52-53, 54, 198, 201 chloride, 121 cobalt, 132, 133 copper, 136 direct fed microbials, 203 dry cows, 185 dry matter intake, 3, 8, 9-lO, SO, 31, 32

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378 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle energy, 18, 53, 54, 58 environmental pollution and, 244 fats, 8, 28, SO, 32, 58, 197, 198, 199-200 frequency of feeding, 9-10 fungi, 203 ionophores, 202, 203 magnesium, 128-129, 194 phosphorus, llO, 112, 114 potassium, 124, 129 pregnancy, abomasum displacement, 196-197 protein, 43, 44, 45-48, 50-7O, 75, 77-81, 85, 131, 136, 222, 234, 237-238, 328-329 CD-ROM application, 356 tables of nutrient requirements, 258-28O, 290-303 selenium, 142 sodium, 118, 129 sulfates, 131, 132 transition cows, 184, 185 vitamins, 162, 164, 168-174 (passim) water, 178 Ruminant Nutrition: Recommended Allowances and Feed Tables, 63 Rye, 288, 297, 303, 309 S Safflower, 72, 288, 297, 309 Salivation acidosis, 198 carbohydrates, 35, 39-40 chloride, 121, 123 iodine, 138 magnesium, 128-129 phosphorus, llO, 111, 112, 113, 116 proteins, 45 sodium, 118, 119 Salts, general, 201 ammonium, 43 fats and, 28, 29-3O, 31 proteins and, 44 udder edema, 190 water salinity, 118, 179, 180-181 see also Sodium Selenium, 105, 131, 132, 141-143, 167, 182, 195-196, 223, 226, 324 blood, 142,143, 196 placenta, 142, 195-196 pregnancy, 142, 143, 195-196, 226 supplements, 141-142, 143, 167, 195, 226 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 313 Sheep and lambs, 240-241 chloride, 122 copper, 136 phosphorus, 112, 113-114 potassium, 125 protein, 53, 59, 64, 67 selenium, 143 sulfates, 131 Silage, 131, 187, 188, TOO, 192, 201, 249, 253 amino acids, 69, 7O, 74, 76, 80 carbohydrates, 4, 34-40 (passim) calcium, 109 energy requirements, 14, 18, 25 fats, 30 phosphorus, 112 potassium, 125 proteins, 45, 49, 59, 61, 131 sodium, 119 sulfur, 131 tables of nutrient requirements, 266, 269, 273, 275, 282-310 (passim) vitamins, 162-165 (passim) see Fermented feeds Silica, 147, 166, 180 Skeletal tissue, see Bone, of dairy cattle Skin calves, 222 nitrogen secretion, 67 vitamins, 164, 171 zinc deficiency, 146 Social behavior, dry matter intake, 8 Sodium, 105, 113, 118-121, 148, TOO, 192, 193. 201, 229, 252, 323, 331 chloride and, 118-124 (passim), 312 digestion, 118, 119, 201 growth requirements, 119, 127, 323 iodines, 137 lactation, 118, 119, TOO, 121, 126, 127, 180-181, 201, 323 magnesium and, 128, 129, 194 potassium and, 121, 124, 126, 127 pregnancy, 119, loo, 323 selenium and, 142 sulfates and, 131 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 311-313 urine, 119, TOO, 323 water and, 179, 180-181, 182 Soil characteristics aluminum, 129 cobalt deficiency, 133 copper, 135 fertilizers, 105, 128, 142, 148, 149, 246-247 iron, 139 magnesium, 128 minerals, general, 105, 281 nitrogen, 245-246

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Index 379 phosphorus, 115, 246-247 potassium, 128 selenium, 142 sodium, 118 Somatotropin, 3, TO, 204-205 Sorghum, 35, 7O, 72, 76, 249, 251, 253-254, 288, 297, 303, 309 Soya, 18, 34, 35, 44, 46, 49, 51, 63, 7O, 71, 72, 74, 76, 144, 145, 171, 251, 254-255, 266 tables of nutrient requirements, 269, 273, 275, 288, 298 Spatial factors feed-bunk space, 8-9 grazing, walking distances, SO, 21 see also Pasture topography Spectroscopy, 106 Spleen, 146 Standards, 244 cadmium intake, 148 iodine content of milk, 138 iron, water concentration in, 139 phosphorus in soils and water, 246-247 ruminal degradability of protein, measurement of, 61, 62 selenium supplements, 143 Starch, 34-36, 37, 38, 4O, 53, 185, 198, 201, 249, 251, 252, 253, 315 see also Barley; Corn Starter feed, 202, 214-221 (passim), 223, 229, 332 Steers, 235 amino acids, 74 copper, 135 protein, 63-64, 235 vitamins, 162, 171 Steroids, 172, 173, 19O, 195 Sugar, 34, 55, 76, 184 glucose, 49, 129, 131, 137, 146, 172, 174, 184, 189, 199, 202, 203 lactose, 19, 181, 184, 202, 224, 226, 228, 267 Sulfur and sulfates, 105, 131-132, 223, 244, 251, 324, 331 amino acid and, 70 cobalt, 132 copper, 133-134, 135-136 ferric, 138-139 magnesium, 129 manganese, 140 molybdenum, 141 selenium, 143 supplements, 131-132, 143 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 312, 313 water, 181-182 zinc, 144, 148 Sunflower, 72, 76, 288, 298, 303, 309 Supplements, 16, 201 amino acids, 71, 74, 82 carbohydrates, 39, 40 calcium, 108, 109, 114, 115, 145, 191, 193 chromium, 146, 147 cobalt, 133 copper, 135-136 direct feed microbials, 203 fat, 15, 17, 28, SO, 31, 32 fungi, 203-204 immunoglobulins, 227 iodine, 137 ionophores, 202-203 iron, 138 magnesium, 128, 13O, 194 nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), 43 phosphorus, 112, 114, 115, 116 potassium, 125, 126, 128 protein, 74, 76, 144 selenium, 141-142, 143, 167, 195, 226 sodium, 119, 120 somatotropin, 204-205 sulfates, 131-132, 143 vitamins, 162-174 (passim), 195, 198, 224 yeast, 204 zinc, 144 see also Additives Sweat calcium, 106, 322 minerals, various, 105, 322-325 nitrogen secretion, 67 phosphorus, 322 potassium, 125, 126 sodium, 119, 323 water intake, 178, 179 Swine, 43, 69 T Tallow, 8, 15, 29, SO, 31, 228, 267, 284, 306 Temperature and thermoregulation, 239-24O, 241-142 calves, 220-221, 226, 228, 229, 330-331 cold and cold stress, 21, 126, 128, 173, 220-221, 241-242, 325 combustion heat, 19, 24 digestion, 21 dry matter intake, 5-6, 9, 126, 221, 241, 325 fat, protein, and lactose combustion, 19 grazing, energy requirements, 20 heat and heat stress, 5-6, 21, 19, 24, 119, 126, 179, 181, 241, 325; see also Sweat heat processing, feed, 54-55, 62, 252, 253-255 lactation, 126 magnesium, 128 potassium, 125, 126 ruminally protected proteins, 54-55

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380 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle sodium, 119, 126, 181 water intake, 9, 179, 18O, 181, 228 Thiamin, 131, 171-172, 173 Threonine, 69, 72, 75, 77, 79, 290-303, 329 Thymus, 146 Thyroid gland, 136-138, 196 Time factors dry matter intake, 8, 9, 10 eating, time spent, 8, 9 frequency of feeding, 9-lO, SO, 40 grazing, energy expended, 20 sequence of feeding, 10 Tin, 147 Topography, see Pasture topography Total digestible nutrients (TDN), 13-14, 15, 16-17, 55-56, 226, 234, 326-328 tables, 258, 259, 264-265, 276-279, 281, 283-289 ,~ . . 1 OXlClty calcium, 109 chloride, 123-124, 190 chromium, 147 cobalt, 133 copper, 133, 135, 136 iodine, 138 iron, 139 molybdenum, 141 minerals, general, 1, 105, 106, 148-149, 182; see also specific toxic minerals phosphorus, 116 potassium, 127, 190 selenium, 143 sodium, 118, 121, 190 sulfur, 131-132 vitamin, 106, 164, 165, 166, 168 zinc, 146 Trace minerals, 1, 105, 109, loo, 281 see also specific trace minerals Transition cows, 2, 127, 174, 184-189, 195, 196, 214, 226, 238, 239 see also Pregnancy Triglycerides, 15, 28, 29, 31, 146, 188-189 Triticale, 70 Tryptophan, 69, 72, 75, 290-303, 329 Tyrosine, 69-7O, 72, 133 U Udder edema, 2, 189-191 Udder mastitis, 118, 141, 143, 163, 167, 168, 189, 19O, 191, 198 Urea, 43, 48, 49, 52, 53, 131 Urine and urinary factors calcium, 106, 322 chloride, 121, 122, 123, 323 copper, 324 environment, effects on, 244, 245 ketosis, 171, 174, 188-189, 191, 202, 203 magnesium, 129, 13O, 323 manganese, 140 minerals, various, 105, 321-325 nitrogen, 67, 178, 245 phosphorus, 111, 112, 116, 247, 322 potassium, 124, 125, 127, 178, 323 protein, 67 selenium, 143 sodium, 119, 12O, 323 water in, 178, 179 zinc, 146, 324 Uterus, 68, 185 abomasum displacement, 197 metritis, 194-195, 196, 198 minerals, general, 105 phosphorus, 111 water, 178 see also Placenta V Valine, 69, 72, 75, 77, 79, 290-303, 329 Vanadium, 148, 182 Veal calves, 214-215, 217, 220 Vitamin A, 162-164, 171, 185, 195, 215-218, 223, 224, 225, 266, 325, 331 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 280 Vitamin B12, 172, 173 see also Cobalt Vitamin C, 7O, 129, 172-173 Vitamin D, 106, 11O, 116, 164-166, 184, 192, 193-194, 195, 223, 225, 266, 325, 331 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 280 Vitamin E, 166-168, 185, 191, 195, 223, 224-225, 226, 266, 325, 331 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 280 Vitamin K, 168-169 Vitamins, 1-2, 162-177, 266 blood, 162-169 (passim), 173, 196 calves, 163, 167-168, 17O, 172, 173, 222, 223, 224-225, 226, 227, 331 cellular processes, 163, 167, 17O, 172-173 colostrum, 168, 227 deficiencies, 165-172 (passim), 195-196, 224 digestion, 166, 171, 225 dry matter intake, 165, 168, 224 immune system, 163, 164, 167, 169, 224 intestines, 162, 164, 171, 174, 192 lactation, 163-164, 165, 167, 168, 17O, 172, 174 production of milk, 163-164, 165, 166, 170-171 liver function, 164, 17O, 171

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Index 381 nervous system, 163, 171, 172 placenta, 169, 195-196, 226 pregnancy, 163, 164, 165, 167-168, 169, 17O, 172, 195-196, 227 ruminal processes, 162, 164, 168-174 (passim) skin, 164, 171 steers, 162, 171 supplements, 162-174 (passim), 195, 198, 224 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 280 weight factors, 163-169 (passim), 173 see also B-vitamins; Fat-soluble vitamins; Water- soluble vitamins W Water and water requirements, 2, 9, 22, 44, 178-183 acid-base balance, 118, 180-181, 182 bacteria, 182 blood, 178, 182 calcium, 181, 182 calves, 18O, 182, 219, 221, 227-228, 230 chloride, 122, 123 dry matter intake and, 178-179, TOO, 181 iron, 135 lactation, 178-179, 181 magnesium supplements, 194 potassium, 124, 126, 127 salinity, 118, 179, 180-181 sodium, 121, 179 sulfur toxicity, 131-132 temperature and thermoregulation, 9, 179, 18O, 181, 228 see also Sweat urine loss, 178, 179 weight factors, 178, 182, 228 see also Eating and drinking behavior Water pollution, 180-182 phosphorus, 109-11O, 247 salinity, 118, 179, 180-181 sulfates, 131-132 Water-soluble vitamins, 1-2, 162, 169-174, 225 see also specific water-soluble vitamins Weather, 259 dry matter intake, 9 vitamins, 165, 166 wind, 21, 241-242 see also Temperature and thermoregulation Weight factors, 22, 23, 234-242, 259, 260-261 amino acids, 71, 72, 75, 77, 82 anorexia, 12O, 121, 148 body condition score (BCS), 22, 24-25, 202-203, 235, 241, 266-267 calcium, 107 calves, 114, 123, 139, 14O, 143, 167, 169, 173, 215-218, 22O, 221-222, 228, 229, 33O, 332 birth weight, 21, 68, 182, 226 CD-ROM application, 357, 358, 360 chloride, 121, 123 cobalt deficiency, 132 copper, 133, 134 dry matter intake, 4, 5, 6, 9, 44, 75, 77, 111 185-186 energy requirements, 18, 21, 234-238 ) 117, it, equations, 236, 238-24O, 241, 315, 318-326 (passim), 33O, 332 fetal, 259 heifers, 6, 234-242 iodine, 137 ionophores, 202-203 iron, 138, 139 laminitis, 198-199 magnesium, 129 manganese, 14O, 141 minerals, general, 105 obesity, 190 phosphorus, 110-114 (passim), 117 potassium, 124-128 (passim) pregnant cows, 68, 117, 239, 259 protein, 44, 65, 68-69, 75, 77, 186-187, 215, 234, 235, 236-238 selenium, 143 sodium, 118, 121 sulfur, 131 tables of nutrient requirements, 258-280 transition cows, 184, 185-187 vitamins, 163-169 (passim), 173 water, 178, 182, 228 zinc, 144, 145, 146 see also Growing cattle and growth factors Wheat, 35, 7O, 72, 76, 254, 289, 298, 303, 310 Whey, 15, 72, 222, 226, 228, 289, 298, 310 White muscle disease, 167 Wind, 21, 241-242 y Yeast, 14O, 142, 146, 171, 204 Yield, milk, see Production, milk Young cows, see Calves; Heifers z Zinc, 105, 109, 135, 143-146, 148, 181, 182, 223, 226, 324-325, 330 intestines, 135, 144 pregnancy, 144, 226, 325 tables of nutrient requirements, 266-274, 28O, 304-31O, 312, 313 urine, 146, 324