TABLE 7-1 Survey of Data Used to Estimate Vitamin E Requirement

 

Estimated Requirement

 

Species

Age and Body Weight

Daily DM Consumption

Type of Diet

Nutrient Levels Studied

Criteria Used to Estimate Requirement

mg·kg−1 of dietary DM

mg (or IU)·BWkg-1·d-1

Reference

Macaca mulatta

Young 2 kg

Assumed 30 g·BWkg1·d−1

Purified

0 (+ suppl) or 20 mg·d−1

Dose needed for anemia remission, number days of remissions

<10 mg·0.03 kg−1 = <333 mg of α-tocopherol

<10 mg of αtocopherol

Dinning and Day, 1957

Macaca mulatta

Immature 1.5-2.5 kg

Assumed 30 g·BWkg1·d−1

Purified

0 (+ suppl) or 34 mg·d−1

Dose needed to keep urinary creatine:creatinine ratio below 1

2.6 mg·0.03 kg−1 = 87 mg of d,lα-tocopherol

2.6 of mg d,l-αtocopherol

Fitch and Dinning, 1963

Macaca mulatta

Young 1.3-1.8 kg

Assumed 30 g·BWkg1·d−1

Purified

0 (+ suppl) or 34 mg·d−1

Dose needed for anemia remission, number days of remission

0.378 mg·0.03 kg−1 = 12.6 mg of l-α-tocopherol

0.378 ± 0.108 mg of l-α-tocopherol

Fitch et al., 1965

Macaca mulatta

4.5 and 4.0 kg

170 g (ME at 3.48 kcal·g−1 of DM)

Purified

0, 5, and 10 mg·kg−1 of diet

Plasma vitamin E concentrations

>5 mg and <10 mg of d-α-tocopherol

>0.4 mg <0.75 mg of d-α-tocopherol

Bieri and Evarts, 1972

Cebus albifrons

14 mos 1.4-1.8 kg

86 g (ME at 185 kcal·BWkg−1)

Purified

Trace vs 100 mg·kg−1 of diet

Dose needed for anemia remission, number days of remission

3.0 mg of α-tocopherol

0.165 ± 0.02 mg of α-tocopherol

Ausman and Hayes, 1974

Macaca fascicularis

14 mos 2.2 kg

67 g (ME at 105 kcal·BWkg−1)

Purified

Trace vs 100 mg·kg−1 of diet

Curing anemia

3.2 mg

0.10 mg

Ausman and Hayes, 1974

Callithrix jacchus

80-90% mature 306-344 g

Assumed 32 g

Purified

4 or 48 mg·kg−1 of diet

Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations, ability to reduce peroxidative hemolysis

>4 mg to <48 mg of d-αtocopherol

Calc: (>4 mg) (0.032 g of diet) = 0.128 mg·0.325 kg−1 = >0.4 mg; (<48 mg) (0.032 g) = 1.536 mg· 0.325 kg−1 = <4.7 mg

McIntosh, 1987

Callithrix jacchus

400 ± 20 g

31 g

Purified (+ fish oils)

2.94 mg per monkey

Plasma concentrations and erythrocyte hemolysis

>95 mg

<7.4 mg

Ghebremeskel et al., 1990

Callithrix jacchus

Adult 392 g

31 and 33 g

Purified (+ fish oils)

2.94 mg and 52.7 mg per monkey

Hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis—64% (high) vs 2% (normal)

>95 mg <1,600 mg

>7.4 mg <134 mg

Ghebremeskel et al., 1991

Callithrix jacchus

Young, 9-12 mos 295-330 g

Assumed 32 g

Purified

130 IU·kg−1 of diet

Plasma tocopherol concentrations

<130 IU of α-tocopherol

Calc: (130 IU)(0.032 kg of diet) = 4.16 IU·0.33 kg−1 = <12.6 IU

Charnock et al., 1992

Macaca fascicularis

N.A.

Assumed 30 g·BWkg−1·d−1

Purified

60 or 270 mg·kg−1 of diet

Liver α-tocopherol, lipofuscin pigments, enzymes, and TBRS

<60 mg >270 mg if ω-3 fatty acids present

N.A.

Kaasgaard et al., 1992a

Cercopithecus aethiops

Adult

30 g·BWkg−1·d−1 (ME at 90 kcal·BWkg−1·d−1)

Purified

Vitamin E at 30-50 mg·kg−1 of diet

Plasma concentrations

<50 mg

N.A.

Carr et al., 1993a

aReport did not identify minimal vitamin E requirements, but data provide an upper boundary of need based on criteria used.

in the liver of rats and chicks to form menaquinone-4 (MK-4) (Olson, R.E., 1999).

Vitamin K is the cofactor for γ-glutamyl carboxylase, a microsomal enzyme responsible for the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamyl residues (producing γ-carboxy-glutamic acid, Gla) in seven coagulation proenzymes (clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X and proteins C, S, and Z) and in intracellular protein Gas 6 (growth-arrest-specific factor, homologous to protein S), matrix Gla protein, and bone Gla protein (osteocalcin) (Hauschka et al., 1989; Liu et al., 1996; Ferland, 1998).

It is now apparent that vitamin K is important not only in blood coagulation but also in bone metabolism. Matrix Gla protein is found in the organic matrix of bone, dentin,



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