TABLE 1-6 Ape Feeding Ecology

Scientific Name

Common Name

Dieta

Behavior

Body Weightb

References

The Small Apes

Hylobates

H. (Bunopithecus) hoolock

H. agilis

H. klossii

H. lar

H. pileatus

H. (Nomascus) gabriellaec

H. (Nomascus) leucogenysc

Hoolock or white-browed gibbon

Dark-handed or agile gibbon

Kloss’s gibbon

White-handed gibbon

Pileated or capped gibbon

Golden-cheeked gibbon

Chinese white-cheeked gibbon

All fruit 72% (38-100%) (30% is fig), flowers 6% (0-24%); leaves (and shoots, petiole, and other 15% (0-62%) (mostly young leaves), prey 7% (0-25%); honey; leaf galls

Diurnal, arboreal, monogamous with offspring, group size 2-12

4.4-8.6 kg females, 4.5-10 kg males

Ahsan, 1994; Aldrich-Blake, 1980; Alfred, 1992; Choudhury, 1990; Ellefson, 1974; Gittins, 1982; Islam & Feeroz, 1992; Leutenegger & Cheverud, 1982; MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 1980a, 1980b; Mitani, 1990; Mukhergee, 1986; Palombit, 1997; Raemaekers, 1978, 1979, 1984; Roonwal & Mohnot, 1977; Silva & Downing, 1995; Ungar, 1995; Whitten, 1982, 1984; Wolfheim, 1983

H. moloch

H. muelleri

Silvery Javan gibbon

Mueller’s Bornean gibbon

Fruit 60% (range 56-62%), flowers 2% (0-4%), leaves 37% (32-44%), prey 1% (0-2%)

Same

5-8 kg

Kappeler, 1984; Leighton, 1987; Robbins et al., 1991; Rodman, 1978; Silva & Downing, 1995

H. (Nomascus) concolor

Black gibbon

Fruits 21%, flowers 7%, leaves 11%, leaf buds and shoots 61%, bamboo

Same

4.5-9 kg

Lan, 1993; Liu et al., 1989; Sheeran, 1993; Sheeran & Mootnick, 1995; Yang & Zuu, 1990

H.(Symphalangus) syndactylus

Siamang

Fruit 40% (6-59%) (figs are 28%), flowers 6% (0-32%), leaves 49% (24-70%) (42% young leaves), prey 5%

Same

9-11.14 kg females, 10.4-14.77 kg males

Aldrich-Blake, 1980; Chivers, 1974, 1977; Chivers et al., 1975; Curtin & Chivers, 1978; MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 1978, 1980b; Palombit, 1997; Raemaekers, 1978, 1979, 1984; Silva & Downing, 1995

The Great Apes

Pongo

P. abelii

Sumatran orangutan

Fruit 74% (22-98%) (seeds were 26% in the fruit category), leaves and shoots 15% (7-42%), bark and wood 4% (0-16%), insects 5% (0-40%, includes search time), other (including flowers) 2%, eat succulent fruits and large fruits with hard husk

Diurnal, arboreal mostly, males solitary, females travel with offspring, group size 1-3 individuals

33-45 kg females, 75-91 kg males

MacKinnon, 1974; Rijksen, 1978 ; Ungar, 1995; Wolfheim, 1983

P. pygmaeus

Borneo orangutan

Fruit 62% (0-100%), flowers 4% (0-60%), leaves and shoots 19% (0-77%), pith 1% (0-22%), bark and wood 11% (0-73%), insects 2% (0-27%), other 3% (0-41%)

Same

33-45 kg females, 75-91 kg males

Hamilton & Galdikas, 1994, Galdikas & Teleki, 1981; Knott, 1999, 1998, 1996; Leighton, 1993; MacKinnon, 1974; Rodman, 1977, 1978, 1988; Silva & Downing, 1995; Suzuki, 1994; Wheatley, 1982

Gorilla gorilla

G. g. beringei

Mountain gorilla

Pith, shoots, leaves and stems of herbs and shrubs 91% (range 85-96%); wood or bark 2% (0-7%) roots 1% (0-4%); flowers 2% (0-3%); fruit 1% (0-2%); dung 0.5% (0-2%); prey 1% (0-1%); fungus and miscellaneous 2% (0-5%)

1 male (occasionally 2), multifemale group size about 9 individuals

83-98 kg females, 159-278 kg males

Fossey, 1974; Fossey & Harcourt, 1977; Goodall, 1977; Silva & Downing, 1995; Vedder, 1984; Watts, 1984, 1996; Wolfheim, 1983

G. g. gorilla

Western lowland gorilla

Pith, shoots, and stems of herbs and shrubs 17% (7-43%); leaves 21% (6-34%); bark 5% (0-32%); roots 1% (0-4%); flowers 1% (0-6%); seeds 4% (1-13%); fruit 48% (17-68%); prey 1% (0-4%); miscellaneous 2% (0-11%)

Diurnal, terrestrial, some arboreal; 1 male, multifemale; group size 3-21

72 kg female, 139-170 kg males

Kuroda, 1992; Kuroda et al., 1996, Nishihara, 1992, 1995; Remis, 1995, 1997; Rodgers et al., 1990; Sabater Pi, 1966, 1977; Tutin 1996; Tutin et al., 1984, 1991, 1997; Tutin & Fernandez, 1993; Williamson et al., 1990



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