TABLE 11-1 Estimated Nutrient Requirements (in Dietary DM) of Primate Model Species Fed Purified or Semipurified Dietsa

 

Cercopithecidae

Cebidae

Callitrichidae

Colobinae

Strepsirrhini

Pongidae and Hominidaeb

Nutrient

Macaque

Baboon

Squirrel monkey

Cebus

Howler

Marmoset, Tamarin

Colobus, Langur

Lemur

Chimpanzee

Humans

Crude protein, %c

8m

8-21g

7m

7-10g

 

7m 12-18g

14gd

6

Taurine, %e

Essential n-3 fatty acids, % f

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Essential n-6 fatty acids, % g

2

2

2

2

NDF, %h

10

30

10

30

20

20

ADF, % i

5

15

5

15

10

10

Ca, %

0.55m

0.22

P, %

0.33m

0.14

Mg, %

0.04m

0.074

K, %

0.24md

Na, %

0.25md

Cl, %

0.27md

Fe, mg·kg-1

100g

16

Cu, mg·kg-1

15d

1.8

Mn, mg·kg-1

44d

4.1

Zn, mg·kg-1

20g 13m

17g

19

I, mg·kg-1

 

0.65d

0.3

Se, mg·kg-1

0.11

0.11

 

0.11

Cr+3,mg·kg-1

0.09

 

0.06

Vitamin A, IU·kg-1

5,000

12,000d

5,333

Vitamin D3,IU·kg-1

1,000

1,250d

1,000

2,400d

800

Vitamin E, mg·kg-1j

68d

>95-130l

30

Vitamin K, mg·kg-1k

>0.06- 3.0 l

0.3

Thiamin, mg·kg-1

1.1

2.3

Riboflavin, mg·kg-1

1.7

1.7

2.4

Pantothenic acid, mg·kg-1

20d

20d

10

Niacin, mg·kg-1

16

30

Vitamin B6,mg·kg-1

4.4d

3.1d

2-4g

2.9

Biotin, mg·kg-1

0.11

0.06

Folacin, mg·kg-1

1.5g

1.5g 3.3r

1.5g 3.3r

0.8

Vitamin B12,mg·kg-1

0.011

0.011

0.005

Vitamin C, mg·kg-1

110

170

aEstimated from published data in prior chapters, assuming apparent metabolizable energy at 4.0 kcalg-1 of dry matter, high nutrient bioavailability, and little to no adverse nutrient interactions. Values with following subscripts were derived from studies concerned with maintenance (m) of adults, reproduction (r), or growth (g) of young. Values without a subscript were presumed adequate for all life stages.

bFor comparison, recommended dietary allowances or adequate intakes for humans (approximate means of non-reproducing adult age and sex categories), assuming a daily intake of 500 g of dietary dry matter (NRC, 1989 [protein only]; Institute of Medicine, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001).

cProtein requirement depends on amounts and proportions of essential amino acids. Growth requirements decline with age.

dLowest concentration tested.

eTaurine appears to be required in the diet during the first post-natal year.

fEssential n-3 fatty acid requirements met by indicated concentration of a-linolenic acid. If supplied by eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid, required concentration may be less (see Chapter 5).

gEssential n-6 fatty acid requirements met by indicated concentration of linoleic acid.

hNeutral-detergent fiber. Not a nutrient, but indicated or higher concentration appears to promote gastrointestinal health in indicated primates after weaning (see Chapter 3).

iAcid-detergent fiber. Not a nutrient, but indicated or higher concentration appears to promote gastrointestinal health in indicated primates after weaning (see Chapter 3).

jAs all-rac-a-tocopheryl acetate.

kAs phylloquinone.

lLower concentration inadequate, higher concentration adequate.

grains and a considerable amount of the niacin in oil seeds is bound and unavailable to simple-stomached animals. Bioavailability of biotin in corn is near 100%, but it is bound and only about 50% available in wheat, barley, triticale, and sorghum grain.

Diets comprised of conventional feed ingredients often contain items such as ground grains, grain byproducts, oilseed meals, forage meals, animal byproducts, fats or oils, calcium and phosphorus sources, salt, and vitamin and trace mineral premixes. These or other items are combined



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