TABLE 11-2 Estimated Adequate Nutrient Concentrations (Dry Matter Basis) in Diets Containing Conventional Feed Ingredients Intended for Post-weaning Nonhuman Primates, Accounting for Potential Differences in Nutrient Bioavailabilities and Adverse Nutrient Interactions, But Not Accounting for Potential Losses in Feed Processing and Storagea

Nutrient

Concentration

Crude protein, %

15-22b

Essential n-3 fatty acids, %

0.5

Essential n-6 fatty acids, %

2

NDF, %

10-30c

ADF, %

5-15c

Ca, %

0.8

Total P, %

0.6d

Non-phytate P, %

0.4

Mg, %

0.08

K, %

0.4

Na, %

0.2

Cl, %

0.2

Fe, mg·kg-1

100e

Cu, mg·kg-1

20

Mn, mg·kg-1

20

Zn, mg·kg-1

100

I, mg·kg-1

0.35

Se, mg·kg-1

0.3

Trivalent Cr, mg·kg-1

0.2

Vitamin A, IU·kg-1

8,000

Vitamin D3,IU·kg-1

2,500 f

Vitamin E, mg·kg-1

100g

Vitamin K, mg·kg-1

0.5h

Thiamin, mg·kg-1

3.0

Riboflavin, mg·kg-1

4.0

Pantothenic acid, mg·kg-1

12.0

Available niacin, mg·kg-1

25.0i

Vitamin B6,mg·kg-1

4.0

Biotin, mg·kg-1

0.2

Folacin, mg·kg-1

4.0

Vitamin B12,mg·kg-1

0.03

Vitamin C, mg·kg-1

200 j

Choline, mg·kg-1

750

aBased upon primate research reported in previous chapters; nutrient requirements of other herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous mammals published in the National Research Council nutrient requirement series; and composition of research and commercial primate diets that have successfully supported adult maintenance, reproduction, and growth of young after weaning. These nutrient concentrations have not been directly tested as a group with any primate, and may not be appropriate for all species or all post-weaning physiologic stages.

bLactation and growth of young—particularly of smaller primates, such as callitrichids—can be more satisfactory when the higher protein concentrations in this range are used. Required concentrations are greatly affected by protein quality (amounts and proportions of essential amino acids), and this issue must be considered. Taurine appears to be a dietary essential for some primate species through the first postnatal year.

cAlthough not nutrients, neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) and acid-detergent fiber (ADF), when used at the concentrations shown in Table 11-1 for the indicated model species, were positively related to gastrointestinal health.

dMuch of the phytate phosphorus found in soybean meal and some cereals appears to be of limited bioavailability.

eBecause some primates appear to be susceptible to iron-storage disease, particularly in the absence of iron-binding polyphenols found in some plants and when large quantities of fruits are offered, it might be desirable to limit dietary iron concentrations to near or slightly below this concentration. However, this is difficult because of the iron associated with use of calcium phosphates (produced from rock phosphate) as a phosphorus source. Calcium phosphates produced from bone (as a byproduct of gelatin manufacture) are lower in iron. In either case, iron in the phosphate source is thought to be lower in bioavailability than iron in ferrous sulfate, as long as the intake of fruits and their associated citrate and ascorbate contents (which promote iron absorption) is limited.

fThere are anecdotal reports of higher vitamin D3 requirements in callitrichids under certain circumstances (see Chapter 7).

gAs all-rac- -tocopheryl acetate.

hAs phylloquinone.

iNiacin in corn, grain sorghum, wheat, and barley is poorly available, as is niacin in byproducts of these grains unless they have undergone fermentation or wet-milling.

jAscorbyl-2-polyphosphate is a source of vitamin C that is biologically active and relatively stable during diet extrusion and storage.



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