are fully saturated; to complicate the matter, tissues of some organs become fully saturated with vitamin E before tissues of others. Thus, as satisfying as it would be to have a single minimal dietary concentration that met the requirements of the whole animal, minimal required concentrations vary with the sensitivity of the endpoint selected. Because nutrient-requirement research in primates is so sparse, we have seldom had the option of identifying a need for more than one endpoint. When such information was available, we tried to relate the minimal requirement to it.

Chapter 1 is a new feature of this revision that was not provided in the previous edition. This chapter is provided to give the reader an understanding of variations in feeding ecology and digestive strategies among primates, which is critical knowledge needed to make informed decisions on feeding primates. The discussion is concerned with foraging strategies in natural ecosystems, species differences in gastrointestinal morphology and physiology, and the significance of these factors in development of appropriate systems of dietary husbandry for captive primates. Because the usefulness of data gathered in field studies of feeding ecology varies with the method used, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Relevant field-study data are tabulated by species, and we illustrate the various gastrointestinal types found among nonhuman primates.

Chapter 2 is a detailed review of energy terms, methods used to determine energy requirements, and energy requirements of nonhuman primates for adult maintenance, growth of young, and pregnancy and lactation. Tables include data on body weight, measured energy expenditures, and estimates of daily metabolizable-energy requirements as multiples of basal metabolic rate.

Chapter 3 discusses first the classification of carbohydrates, their characteristics, digestion, metabolism, and analysis and then discusses analytic systems for fiber, the role of dietary fiber in primate gastrointestinal health, and potentially beneficial dietary fiber concentrations.

Chapter 4 covers proteins, protein sources, and methods of assessing protein quality and requirements. Information on protein-calorie malnutrition and on protein deficiencies and excesses is included. Although quantitative requirements of nonhuman primates for specific amino acids could not be defined, evidence of the essentiality of methionine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and taurine is presented. Protein requirements, based on high-quality reference proteins and various criteria, are given in tabular form.

Chapter 5 addresses fats and fatty acids, including classification, nomenclature, digestion, absorption, and metabolism. It describes essential fatty acids and presents estimated requirements for n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Fatty acid composition of primate milks, potentially harmful fatty acids, cholesterol metabolism, and use of nonhuman primates as models for study of cardiovascular disease are discussed.

Perhaps the most greatly expanded chapter in this revision is Chapter 6, which is a review of mineral nutrition and metabolism, including functions and signs of mineral deficiencies and excesses. In the first edition of this report, which was published in 1978, there was no discussion of sulfur, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum needs of nonhuman primates. In Chapter 6 of this second edition, we are able to provide the first recommendations on mineral requirements for copper and selenium based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. Similarly, Chapter 6 provides the first review and discussion of sulfur and cobalt in primate nutrition by the National Research Council Committee on Animal Nutrition. Mineral requirements of several primate species at various ages are given.

Chapter 7 is a discussion of fat- and water-soluble vitamins, including form, function, metabolism, and signs of deficiency and toxicity. Estimates of quantitative requirements of nonhuman primates are provided.

Chapter 8 deals with water as a component of the primate body and with the influence of activity and various environmental factors on the proportion of body water. Water sources, water quality, water turnover, water requirements, and important considerations in providing water for nonhuman primates are discussed.

Chapter 9 presents information on a number of pathophysiologic and life-stage considerations that are relevant to nonhuman-primate nutrition. It includes values of body mass (weight) and body composition, studies of the nutritional needs of neonates, effects of aging on nutritional needs, and relationships of nutrition to aging, obesity, and diabetes. Special considerations for hand-rearing of orphaned or abandoned young animals are covered and recommendations for simulating the composition of milk produced by the mother in normal lactation and the mother’s normal nursing schedule are provided as well as introducing solid food into the diet as the young progress toward weaning.

Chapter 10 discusses primate-diet formulation, effects of feed processing on nutrient loss, factors that influence food intake, and some general suggestions for dietary husbandry. Plants that have been safely used as browse offerings in captivity are listed.

Providing much more detailed and focused recommendations than the general recommendations provided in the previous edition, Chapter 11 tabulates estimated nutrient requirements of model nonhuman primates in six categories (suborder Strepsirrhini; families Hominidae and Pongidae, Cercopithecidae, Cebidae, and Callitrichidae; and subfamily Colobinae). These requirements were estimated on the basis of a thorough review of the world’s scientific literature, input from numerous scientific sources, and the Committee’s best judgment. The requirements apply most satisfactorily to purified diets with high nutrient bioavailability and without substantial adverse interactions among nutrients. The estimates represent minimal requirements without safety allowances.

Also provided in this chapter is a table (Table 11-2) of dietary nutrient concentrations proposed as a guide for formulation of diets containing natural ingredients and intended for post-weaning primates. These have been



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