About the Authors

Duane E. Ullrey, PhD, (Chair), is a professor emeritus in the Departments of Animal Science and Fisheries and Wildlife at Michigan State University. He also is a Research Associate of the Jennings Center for Zoological Medicine in San Diego and the Smithsonian Institution’s Department of Zoological Research at the National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. Dr. Ullrey has devoted substantial effort throughout his career to improving the nutrition and dietary husbandry of captive wild animals for the betterment of health and welfare and conservation of endangered species, and is a founding member of the Comparative Nutrition Society. His research interests include quantitative nutrient requirements of wild animals and the analytic methods applicable to their study, mineral and vitamin metabolism, and relationships between nutrition and immunologic response. Dr. Ullrey began his service with the National Research Council as a member of the Committee on Animal Nutrition in 1973. Subsequently, he has chaired several committees and has participated as a member of numerous others. He also has served on panels and committees for the National Science Foundation, the American Society of Nutritional Sciences, the American Society of Animal Science, the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, the National Institutes of Health, and the World Health Organization.

Mary E. Allen, PhD, is a clinical nutritionist in the Department of Conservation Biology at the National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. Dr. Allen’s research interests include insectivory and vitamin and mineral metabolism. She is nutrition adviser to several species survival plans and taxon advisory groups for the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. She has served as associate editor of the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, and was one of the scientific editors of Wild Mammals in Captivity and for the Proceedings of the Dr. Scholl Nutrition Conferences. Dr. Allen is a founding member of the Comparative Nutrition Society and is an Adjunct Professor of Animal Science and Nutrition at the University of Maryland. She received her PhD in animal science and comparative nutrition from Michigan State University. She serves on the Committee on Animal Nutrition of the National Research Council. Dr. Allen also is a member of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences and Sigma Xi.

Lynne M. Ausman, D.Sc., R.D., is a professor and Dean of Students at the Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Scientist at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, and Adjunct Professor of Family Medicine and Consumer Health, School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA. From 1982 to 2000, she also was a lecturer in comparative pathology at the New England Regional Primate Research Center, affiliated with Harvard Medical School. Her research interests include nutrient requirements for infant and adult nonhuman primates and the effect of diet on colitis and colon cancer in the cotton-top tamarin. Dr. Ausman is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the Comparative Nutrition Society, the Institute of Food Technologists, the American Primatological Society, the International Primatological Society, and numerous other professional organizations. Dr. Ausman received her D.Sc. in nutrition, with minors in biochemistry and biostatistics, from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Nancy L. Conklin-Brittain, PhD, is a research associate at Harvard University and is working on a large chimpanzee and monkey dietary-comparison field project in Africa. She has consulted internationally for the Organization for Tropical Studies, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the US Agency for International Development, and other groups. Dr. Conklin-Brittain has evaluated the chemistry of dietary differences between monkeys and apes by analyzing the composition of natural foods selected by these animals in Kibale Forest, Uganda. In addition to teaching responsibilities, she studies primate plant-food samples from Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Indo-



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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 About the Authors Duane E. Ullrey, PhD, (Chair), is a professor emeritus in the Departments of Animal Science and Fisheries and Wildlife at Michigan State University. He also is a Research Associate of the Jennings Center for Zoological Medicine in San Diego and the Smithsonian Institution’s Department of Zoological Research at the National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. Dr. Ullrey has devoted substantial effort throughout his career to improving the nutrition and dietary husbandry of captive wild animals for the betterment of health and welfare and conservation of endangered species, and is a founding member of the Comparative Nutrition Society. His research interests include quantitative nutrient requirements of wild animals and the analytic methods applicable to their study, mineral and vitamin metabolism, and relationships between nutrition and immunologic response. Dr. Ullrey began his service with the National Research Council as a member of the Committee on Animal Nutrition in 1973. Subsequently, he has chaired several committees and has participated as a member of numerous others. He also has served on panels and committees for the National Science Foundation, the American Society of Nutritional Sciences, the American Society of Animal Science, the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, the National Institutes of Health, and the World Health Organization. Mary E. Allen, PhD, is a clinical nutritionist in the Department of Conservation Biology at the National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. Dr. Allen’s research interests include insectivory and vitamin and mineral metabolism. She is nutrition adviser to several species survival plans and taxon advisory groups for the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. She has served as associate editor of the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, and was one of the scientific editors of Wild Mammals in Captivity and for the Proceedings of the Dr. Scholl Nutrition Conferences. Dr. Allen is a founding member of the Comparative Nutrition Society and is an Adjunct Professor of Animal Science and Nutrition at the University of Maryland. She received her PhD in animal science and comparative nutrition from Michigan State University. She serves on the Committee on Animal Nutrition of the National Research Council. Dr. Allen also is a member of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences and Sigma Xi. Lynne M. Ausman, D.Sc., R.D., is a professor and Dean of Students at the Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Scientist at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, and Adjunct Professor of Family Medicine and Consumer Health, School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA. From 1982 to 2000, she also was a lecturer in comparative pathology at the New England Regional Primate Research Center, affiliated with Harvard Medical School. Her research interests include nutrient requirements for infant and adult nonhuman primates and the effect of diet on colitis and colon cancer in the cotton-top tamarin. Dr. Ausman is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the Comparative Nutrition Society, the Institute of Food Technologists, the American Primatological Society, the International Primatological Society, and numerous other professional organizations. Dr. Ausman received her D.Sc. in nutrition, with minors in biochemistry and biostatistics, from the Harvard School of Public Health. Nancy L. Conklin-Brittain, PhD, is a research associate at Harvard University and is working on a large chimpanzee and monkey dietary-comparison field project in Africa. She has consulted internationally for the Organization for Tropical Studies, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the US Agency for International Development, and other groups. Dr. Conklin-Brittain has evaluated the chemistry of dietary differences between monkeys and apes by analyzing the composition of natural foods selected by these animals in Kibale Forest, Uganda. In addition to teaching responsibilities, she studies primate plant-food samples from Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Indo-

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 nesia. Her expertise includes fiber analysis and macronutrient nutrition. Dr. Conklin-Brittain is a member of the Wildlife Society and the International Society of Chemical Ecologists. She received her PhD in animal nutrition, with minors in plant breeding and international agriculture, from Cornell University. Mark S. Edwards, PhD, is head nutritionist at the Zoological Society of San Diego. Dr. Edwards is responsible for the dietary husbandry and nutrition of all animals at the San Diego Zoo and the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Dr. Edwards also serves as a nutrition adviser to the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, consulting on nutrition for specific captive population management programs. As an Adjunct Professor at California Polytechnic University, he teaches in the Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Dr. Edwards is a member of the American Society of Primatologists, the Comparative Nutrition Society, and other professional organizations. He received his PhD in animal science and comparative animal nutrition from Michigan State University. Joseph M. Erwin, PhD, directs the Division of Neurobiology and Behavior and the Department of Primate Ecology at Bioqual Inc./Diagnon Corporation, where he also serves as a consulting primatologist. His previous consulting for government and industry regarding primate research, care, and well-being included work on a National Science Foundation grant-funded effort to identify the most effective methods of environmental enrichment for laboratory primates. His interests include design of innovative primate-housing systems and methods for improving animal well-being through enrichment. He is US coordinator for the Sulawesi Primate Project, a multidisciplinary field project in Indonesia. Dr. Erwin is principal investigator of the Great Ape Aging Project, a Comparative Neurobiology of Aging Resource. He is also developing a project to study diabetes in great apes and other primates. Dr. Erwin received his PhD in psychobiology from the University of California, Davis. Michael F. Holick, MD, PhD, is a professor of Medicine, Dermatology, and Physiology at Boston University School of Medicine, Professor of Nutrition at Tufts University, Program Director of the General Clinical Research Center at Boston University, Director of the Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism Laboratory and the Bone Health Clinic at Boston University Medical Center Hospital, and Director of the Heliotherapy, Light, and Skin Research Center at the Boston University School of Medicine. His research focuses on endocrinology and nutrition, including work on calcium, bone metabolism, and vitamin D. Dr. Holick received his MD and his PhD from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Daniel T. Hopkins, PhD, is recently retired from his position as technical director of the Specialty Business Group at Purina Mills, Inc., where he directed nutritional research projects and developed diets for laboratory animals, exotic animals, and fish. His expertise includes diet formulation in laboratory and zoologic settings and work with investigators and animal breeders. Dr. Hopkins is a member of Sigma Xi, the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the Comparative Nutrition Society, and the Institute of Food Technologists. He received his PhD in animal nutrition, with minors in biochemistry and endocrinology, from Cornell University. Sherry M. Lewis, PhD, serves as manager of Applied Nutrition, The Bionetics Corporation, at the National Center for Toxicological Research, where she provides guidance concerning the nutritional and environmental requirements of specialized groups of research animals. Her responsibilities include interagency work with the National Institute on Aging, clinical nutrition studies with the University of Tennessee, Memphis, the Toxicology Study Selection and Review Committee for scientific research, and caloric restriction and aging studies in rodents. She received her doctorate in animal nutrition from The Ohio State University and is a member of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences, the Comparative Nutrition Society and the American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists. Bo Lonnerdal, PhD, is a professor of Nutrition and Internal Medicine at the University of California, Davis. Dr. Lonnerdal is a widely recognized expert in lactation, milk, milk substitutes, and infant nutrition. His current research interests include proteins, trace elements, lactation, digestion, and milk composition in a variety of species. Dr. Lonnerdal is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Henning Throne-Holst’s Award for Research in Nutritional Physiology, the Borden Award, and the International Award for Modern Nutrition. Dr. Lonnerdal is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the International Society for Research on Human Milk and Lactation, and other professional organizations. He received his PhD in biochemistry, with a minor in nutrition, from the University of Uppsala in Sweden. Lawrence L. Rudel, PhD, is a professor of Pathology (Comparative Medicine) and Biochemistry at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine, where he teaches graduate courses and pursues research on such subjects as nutrition and prevention and control of disease, the role of lipoprotein metabolism in atherosclerosis, and genetic factors regulating fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. Nonhuman primate models are the centerpiece of this

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 research. Among many community service activities, he served as Chair of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Center of Human Nutrition and Chronic Disease Prevention at Wake Forest University and as an expert advisor to the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association; he is currently a member of this committee. Dr. Rudel is a consultant in lipid metabolism and serves on the editorial boards of three journals, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology; Atherosclerosis; and the Journalof Lipid Research. Dr. Rudel received his PhD in biochemistry from the University of Arkansas Medical Center.

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