Index

A

Absorption

carbohydrates, 60

fats, 2, 90–91

minerals, 97, 98–99, 101, 102, 104, 107, 191

vitamins, 114, 123, 124, 134, 137

Acid-detergent fiber (ADF), 26, 27, 62, 63, 64–66, 68, 192, 193

composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212

protein requirements, 75

Age factors, 1, 2, 159, 162–163, 167–171, 174

see also Growth and development;

Infants amino acid metabolism, 79

body composition and weight, 168–170, 172–173, 174, 175

bone, 95, 167, 168–169, 170

energy requirements, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50–53, 167, 168, 169

fats, 87, 169, 171–172

fiber, 68

immune system, 170

menopause, 167, 170

minerals, 94, 98, 99, 100, 102, 167–169

obesity, 172–173, 174, 175

protein requirements, 77, 78, 80–83

sex differences, 167, 168, 170

vitamins, 125, 127, 133, 139, 167–168

water, 150, 151, 153, 155

Aggressive behavior, 79, 116, 259, 261–262

Aging, 44, 167–171

Albumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–80, 81, 83, 100, 132, 153

lactalbumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–80

Alopecia

minerals, 101, 103, 105

protein, 80, 82

vitamins, 130, 131, 132, 134, 135

Amino acids, 2, 20–21, 75, 77, 78–79, 80, 82–83

see also Proteins

composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255

cysteine, 77, 98, 104, 105, 135

cystine, 98, 134, 242–255

dry matter, 83, 242–255

lysine, 2, 78–79, 242–255

methionine, 2, 77, 78–79, 98, 105, 135, 141, 242–255

phenylalanine, 2, 79, 242–255

selenium, 94, 104–106, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257

sulfur, 77

taurine, 2, 79, 98, 166, 192, 242–255

threonine, 78, 242–255

tryptophan, 2, 79, 131, 132, 242–255

valine, 137, 186, 242–255

vitamins and, 124, 131

Anatomy, vii, 1, 2, 5, 20–26, 182

Anemia, 80, 81, 82–84, 99–100, 101, 124–125, 126, 129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 138

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 259

Animal prey, see Carnivores;

Insects

Arboreal species, general

environmental enhancement, 259, 261

feeding ecology, 6–18 (passim)

water, 153

Arginine, composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255

Arthritis, 96, 167, 170, 176

Ash, 64, 66, 94, 150–151, 171

composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212

Atherosclerosis, 66, 92, 132, 167, 171, 173–174



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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 Index A Absorption carbohydrates, 60 fats, 2, 90–91 minerals, 97, 98–99, 101, 102, 104, 107, 191 vitamins, 114, 123, 124, 134, 137 Acid-detergent fiber (ADF), 26, 27, 62, 63, 64–66, 68, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212 protein requirements, 75 Age factors, 1, 2, 159, 162–163, 167–171, 174 see also Growth and development; Infants amino acid metabolism, 79 body composition and weight, 168–170, 172–173, 174, 175 bone, 95, 167, 168–169, 170 energy requirements, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50–53, 167, 168, 169 fats, 87, 169, 171–172 fiber, 68 immune system, 170 menopause, 167, 170 minerals, 94, 98, 99, 100, 102, 167–169 obesity, 172–173, 174, 175 protein requirements, 77, 78, 80–83 sex differences, 167, 168, 170 vitamins, 125, 127, 133, 139, 167–168 water, 150, 151, 153, 155 Aggressive behavior, 79, 116, 259, 261–262 Aging, 44, 167–171 Albumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–80, 81, 83, 100, 132, 153 lactalbumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–80 Alopecia minerals, 101, 103, 105 protein, 80, 82 vitamins, 130, 131, 132, 134, 135 Amino acids, 2, 20–21, 75, 77, 78–79, 80, 82–83 see also Proteins composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 cysteine, 77, 98, 104, 105, 135 cystine, 98, 134, 242–255 dry matter, 83, 242–255 lysine, 2, 78–79, 242–255 methionine, 2, 77, 78–79, 98, 105, 135, 141, 242–255 phenylalanine, 2, 79, 242–255 selenium, 94, 104–106, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257 sulfur, 77 taurine, 2, 79, 98, 166, 192, 242–255 threonine, 78, 242–255 tryptophan, 2, 79, 131, 132, 242–255 valine, 137, 186, 242–255 vitamins and, 124, 131 Anatomy, vii, 1, 2, 5, 20–26, 182 Anemia, 80, 81, 82–84, 99–100, 101, 124–125, 126, 129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 138 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 259 Animal prey, see Carnivores; Insects Arboreal species, general environmental enhancement, 259, 261 feeding ecology, 6–18 (passim) water, 153 Arginine, composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 Arthritis, 96, 167, 170, 176 Ash, 64, 66, 94, 150–151, 171 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212 Atherosclerosis, 66, 92, 132, 167, 171, 173–174

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 B Bamboo, 10, 187, 197, 213 Bark, 101, 188, 261 Bioavailability, 182, 188, 191 amino acids, 78 minerals, 97, 99–105 (passim), 107 vitamins, 123, 124, 128–136 (passim) Biotin, 133–134, 191, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Blood, see Hematologic factors Body composition and weight, 2, 92, 159–164, 171–176 see also Growth and development age factors, 168–170, 172–173, 174, 175 energy requirements, 43–49, 50–52 feeding ecology, 6–13 fiber, 66 malnutrition, 2, 80–83, 91–96 minerals, 106 obesity, 2, 66, 151, 159, 172–176, 185 age factors, 172–173, 174, 175 proteins, 76, 77, 79, 80–81, 83, 102, 155 sex differences, 159, 162–163, 171 vitamins, 115, 119, 124, 127–141 (passim) water, 150–155 (passim) Bone and bone marrow, 172 aging, 95, 167, 168–169, 170 arthritis, 96, 167, 170, 176 fats, 90, 91 minerals, 94, 95, 96, 97, 107, 127–128 osteoporosis, 95, 167 vitamins, 117, 118, 119, 121, 125, 127–128, 134, 137–138 water, joint lubrication, 150 Brain carbohydrates, 58 diabetes, 175–176 fats, 89, 90 protein, 79, 84 vitamins, 113 water, 152 Browse, general, 96, 186, 187, 261, 262 C Cadmium, 94–95 Calcium, 27, 83, 94, 95–97, 98, 99, 104, 107, 192, 193 aging, 170 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 vitamins and, 116, 117, 119, 121–122, 128, 131, 138 Caloric measures, 41, 43, 47, 50–54 (passim), 166, 171, 185, 192 aging, 168 fats, 89 protein, 77, 80, 81–83 restriction, 80, 171 Cancer, 83, 183 Canned foods, 3, 83, 184 Carbohydrates, 2, 58–66, 82, 106, 184 see also Starch absorption, 58 brain, 58 cellulose, 59–60, 61, 62, 65–66 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212 energy requirements, 41, 42, 59–60 digestion, 58, 59, 60 energy requirements, 41, 42, 52, 58 fermentation, 58, 59 fruit, 58, 60, 62 intestines, 58, 59 pectin, 60, 62 water, 154 Cardiovascular diseases, 2, 84, 91, 92, 98, 173 see also Hematologic factors atherosclerosis, 66, 92, 132, 167, 171, 173–174 fats, 91, 173 minerals, 97, 99 vitamins, 128–129, 132 water, 151, 152 Carnitine, 141 Carnivores, general see also Fish; Insects digestion, 21 environmental enhancement, 261, 262 feeding ecology, 6–18 (passim) protein, 85 Carotenoids, see Vitamin A Casein, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82, 83, 99, 136, 191 Cecum, 21, 24 Cellular biology see also Immune system aging, 170 cholesterol, 91 diabetes, 176 fats, 88–89, 91, 174 minerals, 94, 95, 97, 99, 102, 106 proteins, 82 vitamins, 111, 124, 131–132, 140–141 water, 150, 151–152, 156 Cellulose, 59–60, 61, 62, 65–66 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212 energy requirements, 41, 42, 59–60 Chlorine, 94, 99, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 Choline, 128, 130, 140, 141, 194 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 Cholesterol, 88, 91–92, 101, 173 fiber, 66 infants, 166 metabolism, 2, 91, 123, 125 protein and, 83, 85 vitamins and, 123, 125, 126, 141 Choline, 140–141, 193 Chromium, 94, 99, 106–107, 192, 193 Cobalt, 2, 94, 106, 135–137 Cold, effects of, see Temperature and thermoregulation factors Colon, 21, 24 Computer applications, 182 Internet, vii, 156 Copper, 2, 99, 100–101, 131, 191, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 Corn, 50, 61, 77, 79, 90, 192, 258 Cost factors, 183 Cysteine, 77, 99, 104, 105, 135 Cystine, 99, 134 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 D Dental factors, see Oral cavity Dermatitis, 79, 81, 103, 105, 130, 134 Detergent fiber, see Acid-detergent fiber; Neutral-detergent fiber Dextrins, 59 Diabetes, 2, 151, 153, 167, 168, 169, 173–176 Diarrhea, 79, 81, 82, 103, 115, 130, 131, 132, 134, 135, 154, 188 Diet, 5–12, 14–21, 24, 26–27, 172–175, 185, 187–188, 260–263 carbohydrates, 58 energy, 42–48, 50–52 fat, 87, 89–92 fiber, 65–68, 70 formulation, 182 growth, 159, 164–167 minerals, 95–107 nutrient, 191–192 processing, 183 protein, 75–77, 78–84 restriction, 167–171 supplements, 186 vitamins, 113–116, 118–122, 124–128, 130–141 water, 153–155 Digestion, 2, 20–26, 129, 182, 186 see also Feces; Fermentation; Foregut; Hindgut; Intestines; Metabolic processes; Stomach carbohydrates, 58, 59, 60 fiber, 61, 62, 66, 70 energy requirements, 41–42 environmental enhancement, 260 fats, 88 leaves, 24–26 minerals, 97 protein requirements, 75–77 starch, 62 time factors, 21, 24, 26, 41 water, 150 Disaccharides, 58–59 Diseases and disorders, vii, 2, 80–81, 91, 92, 167, 188 see also Cardiovascular disease; Immune system; Obesity; Toxicity aging and, 167–171 alopecia, 80, 82, 101, 103, 105, 130, 131, 132, 134, 135 anemia, 80, 81, 82–83, 99–100, 101, 124–125, 126, 129, 138, 134, 135, 136, 138 arthritis, 96, 167, 170, 176 atherosclerosis, 66, 92, 132, 167, 171, 173–174 cancer, 83, 183 cardiovascular, 2, 84, 91, 92, 99 atherosclerosis, 66, 92, 132, 167, 171, 173–174 diabetes, 2, 151, 153, 167, 168, 169, 173–176 diarrhea, 79, 81, 82, 103, 115, 130, 131, 132, 134, 135, 154, 188 edema, 79, 80, 81, 82 fats and, 90–91; see Obesity infant feeding, 166–167 infections, 81, 115, 135, 170 influenza, 170 malnutrition, 2, 80–83, 91–96 mineral deficiencies, 95, 96, 99–100, 101, 103–105, 107 mineral toxicity, 94–95, 97–98, 105–106, 107, 121–122, 155 phenylketonuria, 79 protein deficiencies, 75, 79, 80–84 vitamins, deficiencies, 90–91, 115, 117–118, 119–120, 124–141 (passim) hypervitaminosis, 2, 115–116, 121–122 water deficiencies, 151–152, 153, 154, 155 water pollution and, 155–156 wounds, 170–171 Diurnal species, general, feeding ecology, 6–20 (passim) Dry matter, 3, 18, 49, 51, 83, 187, 188, 260–261 amino acids, 83, 242–255 carbohydrates, 58 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 197–257 extrusion, 60, 69, 96, 172, 182, 184, 185, 186, 260, 262, 263 minerals, 94, 95, 96, 97–98, 101, 102, 103, 104, 107

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 pellets, 83, 121, 138, 167, 168, 183, 184, 185, 186 vitamins, 115, 118, 121, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 134, 135, 136, 139 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 228–241 Duodenum, 117 E Ecology, see Environmental enhancement; Feeding ecology Edema, 79, 80, 81, 82 Eggs albumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–80, 81, 82, 101, 132, 153 protein requirements, 75, 76, 83 vitamins, 134 Endangered species, vii, 1 Energy, 1, 41–57, 186, 195 see also Caloric measures age factors, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50–53, 167, 168, 169 growth, 42, 48, 50, 52–54 body composition and weight, 43–49, 50–52 carbohydrates, 41, 42, 52, 58 cellulose, 41, 42, 59–60 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 197–241 digestion, 41–42 environmental enhancement, 259–260, 263 fats, 42, 43–44, 50, 52, 88–89, 91 feces, 41, 44 fiber, 41–42 infants, 43, 48, 50–51, 52–53 lactation, 41, 44, 51–52, 53–55 metabolic processes, 41, 42–43, 45–47, 49, 50, 58, 165–166, 169 milk, 42, 51–54 minerals, 95 obesity, 174, 185 pregnancy, 53 protein, 42, 50, 76, 77, 81 reproductive system, 41, 44, 48, 53 sex differences, other, 44, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52 thermoregulation, 41, 43, 44, 47, 50 water, 154 Environmental enhancement, 3, 186, 259–265 aggressive behavior, 79, 116, 259, 261–262 Environmental Protection Agency, 156 Enzymes amino acids, 79 carbohydrates, 59, 60 digestion, general, 22, 26, 41 energy requirements, 41 fiber, 62 minerals, 94, 97, 98, 100, 101–102 vitamins, 124, 128, 129, 130, 132, 134, 135, 137 water, thermoregulation, 150 Ethical issues, 77 Excretion, see also Diarrhea; Feces; Urine Exercise, see Physical activity Extrusion, 60, 69, 96, 172, 182, 184, 185, 186, 260, 262, 263 Eyes amino acids, 79 fats, 90 feeding, visual clues, 184, 185, 260, 261 minerals, 107 vitamins, 113, 116, 125, 130, 136 water, 150 F Fats and oils, 2, 58, 87–93, 171–173, 176, 192, 193 see also Obesity absorption, 2, 88–89 age factors, 87, 169, 171–172 growth and development, 87, 89, 90, 172 bone and, 90, 91 brain, 89, 90 cardiovascular disease, 91, 173 cellular biology, 88–89, 91, 172 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 197–241, 258 digestion, 2, 88 energy requirements, 42, 43–44, 50, 52, 88–89, 91 fiber and, 66 fish, 89, 258 hepatic system, 90, 141 infants, 89–90, 91 metabolic processes, 2, 88–89, 91, 97, 129, 141, 154 obesity, 2, 151, 167, 172–176, 185 age factors, 172–173, 174, 175 oilseeds, 91, 102, 107, 192, 258 protein and, 83 supplements, 90–91 vitamins and, 2, 123, 124, 125, 141 fat-soluble, 88, 89, 90–91, 113–128, 228–241 water, 150, 151, 153, 155 Feces, 262 see also Diarrhea energy requirements, 41, 43 fats, 88 feeding ecology, 16, 19 minerals, 100 vitamins, 123, 136 water, 150, 154–155 Feeding ecology, vii, 2, 5–22, 184, 186–188 browse, 26, 96, 186, 187, 261, 262

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 environmental enhancement, 3, 186, 259–265 feces, 16, 19 foraging, 2, 5, 6–13, 19, 53, 68, 184, 259–263 fruit, 6–20 (passim), 185 gums and exudates, 6, 9, 19, 20 insects, 6–13 (passim), 19, 20, 261 olfactory perception, 184, 185 seeds, 6–16 (passim), 19, 185 sex differences, 6–13 (passim) tactile perception, 184, 185, 260, 261 taste, 103, 184, 185, 260–261 time factors, 5–13 (passim), 18, 19–20, 259, 260, 261–262 visual perception, 184, 185, 260, 261 water, 153–154 Feed processing, 183–184 canned foods, 3, 83, 184 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 195–258 extrusion, 60, 69, 96, 172, 182, 184, 185 foraging, 2, 53, 68, 184, 259–263 gelled foods, 3, 59, 60, 62, 83, 184 pellets, 83, 121, 138, 167, 168, 183, 184, 186 Females, see Lactation; Pregnancy; Sex differences Fermentation, 22, 23, 26 carbohydrates, 58, 59 fiber, 61, 62, 68 energy requirements, 41–43 minerals, 98 protein, 78 water, 150–151 Fiber, 2, 20, 21, 26, 27, 61–64, 66–70, 191 acid-detergent fiber (ADF), 26, 27, 62, 63, 64–66, 68, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212 protein requirements, 75 carbohydrates, 60 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212 detergent fiber, 62, 63, 64–68 diet formulation, 183 digestion, 61, 62, 66, 70 energy requirements, 41–43 environmental enhancement, 263 fermentation, 61, 62, 68 lignin, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65–68, 75, 197–212 neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), 62–66, 67–70, 192, 193, 197–212 Fish fats and oils, 89, 258 meal, 183 protein, 75, 82 vitamins, 129 water, 152 Flourine, 107 Flowers, 27, 187 feeding ecology, 6–19 (passim) Folacin, 134–135, 136, 192, 228–241 Folivores see also Leaves digestion, 24–26 feeding ecology, 6–20 (passim), 261 fiber, 64, 65–66, 67 Foraging, 2, 5, 6–13, 19, 53, 68, 184, 259–263 see also Wild environment Foregut, 20–21, 24, 26, 42 amino acids, 78 carbohydrates, 58, 59 fiber, 68 minerals, 98 water, 150–151 Fructose, 58, 59, 60, 67, 185 Fruit, 187, 188, 260, 261 see also Seeds aging, 168 carbohydrates, 58, 60, 62 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212 digestion, 21, 24 feeding ecology, 6–20 (passim), 185 fiber, 69 minerals, 103–104 protein requirements, 75 vitamins, 121 water, 154, 155, 187, 194 Fungus, 8, 19 G Galactose, 58–59 Gelled foods, 3, 59, 60, 62, 83, 184 Gender differences, see Sex differences Genetic factors, 191 aging, 167 energy requirements, 52 minerals, 94, 102 vitamins, 116–117, 134 Glucose, 58, 66, 83, 137, 167, 175, 185 see also Cellulose aging, 169–170 lactose, 52, 59 metabolic processes, 154, 171, 174 Glycogen, 59, 120 Grains and grain products, 75, 77, 78, 102, 107, 191, 192 rice, 83 wheat, 60, 77, 78, 79, 83, 102, 183 Group size, 261–262 feeding ecology, 6–18 (passim) water, 156–157

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 Growth and development, 1, 2, 159, 166, 170, 171, 172 see also Age factors; Infants amino acids, 78–79 energy, 42, 48, 50, 52–54 environmental enhancement, 260 fats, 87, 89, 90, 172 minerals, 95, 99, 102, 104 protein, 77, 80–83, 171 standards, 159 vitamins, 118, 121, 130, 135 Gums, 21, 24, 60, 62, 94, 261, 262 feeding ecology, 6, 9, 19, 20 H Heart disease, see Cardiovascular disease Heat, see Temperature and thermoregulation factors Hematologic factors, 66, 80, 168, 169–170, 172, 174, 175–176, 186 see also Cardiovascular disease anemia, 80, 81, 82–83, 99–100, 101, 124–125, 126, 129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 138 atherosclerosis, 66, 92, 132, 167, 171, 173–174 carbohydrates, 58, 66 cholesterol, 66, 83, 84, 89, 91–93, 101, 166, 173 metabolism, 2, 91, 123, 125 vitamins and, 123, 125, 126, 141 fats, 88, 90, 92 insulin, 54, 66, 82, 106, 141, 151, 157, 168, 169, 172–176, 186 diabetes, 2, 151, 153, 167, 168, 169, 173–176 lipids, 61, 66, 81, 88–89, 91, 106, 166, 167, 171, 173–174 (passim), 176 vitamins and, 122, 123–124, 126, 128, 140 lipoproteins, 88, 89, 92, 123–124, 166, 171, 173 minerals, 98, 99, 100, 103, 105 protein, 75, 80, 81, 82 vitamins, 114, 118, 120–140 (passim) water, 150, 151, 152, 153 Hemicelluloses, 60 Hepatic system, 22, 58, 79, 82, 100 fats, 90, 141 vitamins, 114, 123, 124, 128, 130, 131, 132, 136, 137, 141 Hindgut, 20–21, 26 fiber, 68 minerals, 106 Histidine, composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 Historical perspectives, vii committee report at hand, vii, 1 energy requirements, 42 fiber, 61–62 minerals, 95, 96 protein requirements, 77, 79, 80 sampling methods, 5 Humidity, 152–153, 154 Homeostasis see also Temperature and thermal regulation factors minerals, 103, 105 vitamins, 114, 116, 120 water, 153, 156 Hormones minerals and, 94, 97, 99, 104, 106 obesity and diabetes, 176 vitamins and, 119–120 water, 150, 156 Hypervitaminosis, 2, 115–116, 121–122 I Immune system aging, 170 minerals, 101, 105 vitamins, 119–120, 126, 131–132, 134, 135 water, 150 Infant formula, 51, 79, 97, 99–100, 102–103, 165–166 Infants, 159, 161, 164–167 see also Lactation; Pregnancy amino acids, 79 carbohydrates, 59 energy requirements, 43, 48, 50–51, 52–53 fats, 89–90, 91 minerals, 96–97, 99–100, 101–103, 104 protein requirements, 77–82 (passim) vitamins, 117–118, 128 water, 150, 151 weaning, 159, 161, 167 Infections, 81, 115, 135, 170 Influenza, 170 Inositol, 141–142 Insects carnitine, 141 digestion, 21 feeding ecology, 6–13 (passim), 19, 20, 261 minerals, 96, 97 Insulin, 54, 66, 82, 106, 141, 151, 157, 168, 169, 172–176, 186 diabetes, 2, 151, 153, 167, 168, 169, 173–176 Intake, 9, 20–21, 42, 44–52, 58, 66, 68, 70, 76, 80–81, 83, 87, 90–91, 97–100, 102–104, 106–107, 113–115, 117–119, 121, 128, 130, 133, 137, 140, 152–156, 159, 164, 166–176, 184–186, 192–193, 259–260 Internet number of laboratory primates, vii water quality standards, 156 Intestines, 24

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 carbohydrates, 58, 59 fats, 88 minerals, 99, 117 vitamins, 123 water, 154 Iodine, 106, 193, 213–227 Iron, 94, 95, 99–100, 104, 131, 138, 191, 192, 193 anemia, 80, 81, 82–83, 99–100, 101, 124–125, 126, 129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 138 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 Isoleucine, 186, 242–255 see also Leucine K Kidney, see Renal system Kwashiorkor, 81 L Lactalbumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–81 Lactation, 2, 161, 164, 165 energy requirements, 41, 43, 51–52, 53–54 mineral requirements, 96, 103 protein requirements, 75, 80 vitamin requirements, 117–118, 121, 128 Lactose, 52, 59, 81 Leaves, 187, 188, 261–262 carbohydrates, 58, 64 digestion, 24–26 feeding ecology, 6–20 (passim) fiber, 64, 65–66, 67, 262 minerals, 94, 96, 98, 102 protein requirements, 75 water, 153 Leptin, 175–176 Leucine, 131, 186 see also Isoleucine composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 Life stages, see Age factors Light, 120 ultraviolet radiation, 96, 117, 118, 120, 121 water requirements, 150, 154 Lignin, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65–68, 75 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212 Linoleic acid, 87, 88, 89, 90–91 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 197–241 Linolenic acid, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 197–241 Lipoproteins, 89, 89, 92, 123–124, 166, 171, 173 Lipids, 61, 66, 81, 88–89, 91, 106, 167, 171, 173–174 (passim), 176 infants, 166 vitamins and, 122, 123–124, 126, 128, 140 Liver, see Hepatic system Lysine, 2, 78–79 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 M Magnesium, 94, 97–98, 191, 256–257 Maize, see Corn Males, see Sex differences Malnutrition, 2, 80–83, 91–96 Maltose, 59 Manganese, 94, 95, 99, 101–102, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 Marasmus, 81 Menopause, 167, 170 Metabolic processes, 2, 22, 166 see also Digestion; Enzymes; terms beginning“Vitamin” aging, 169, 171 amino acids, 79 body weight, 159, 165–166 carbohydrates, 58, 97, 129, 154 cholesterol, 2, 91, 123, 125 energy, 41, 42–43, 45–47, 49, 50, 58, 165–166, 169 fats, 2, 88–89, 91, 97, 129, 141, 154 glucose, 154, 171, 174 insulin, 54, 66, 82, 106, 141, 151, 157, 168, 169, 172–176, 186 minerals, 66, 95, 96–97, 99, 104, 105, 106, 117 proteins, 83, 97, 129, 154, 165–166 vitamins, 2, 114, 115, 117, 118–120, 123–133 (passim), 135, 137, 138, 140, 141 water, 150–157 (passim) Methionine, 2, 77, 78–79, 98, 105, 135, 141 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 Methodology, see Research methodology Milk, 2, 9, 89, 159, 161, 164–167 see also Lactation carbohydrates, 52, 58 casein, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82, 83, 99, 136, 191 energy requirements, 42, 51–54 lactalbumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–80 lactose, 52, 59, 81 minerals, 98, 99, 100, 102 protein requirements, 75, 76, 81, 83 replacers, 52, 59, 159, 161, 164–167 vitamins, 117–118, 128 Mineral Tolerances of Domestic Animals, 95 Minerals, 2, 63, 94–112, 185 see also Calcium; Phosphorus absorption, 95, 96–97, 99, 100, 102, 105, 191

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 age factors, 96, 98, 99, 100, 102, 167–169 growth and development, 95, 99, 102, 104 bioavailability, 97, 99–105 (passim), 107 body composition and weight, 106 bone, 94, 95, 96, 97, 107, 127–128 osteoporosis, 95, 167 teeth, 95, 107 cadmium, 94–95 cellular biology, 94, 95, 98, 99, 102, 106 chromium, 94, 99, 106–107, 192, 193 cobalt, 2, 94, 106, 135–137 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227 copper, 2, 99, 100–101, 131, 191, 193, 213–227, 256–257 deficiencies, diseases caused by, 95, 96, 99–100, 101, 103–104, 107 dry matter, 94, 95, 96, 97–98, 101, 102, 103, 104, 107, 213–227 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 enzymes and, 94, 97, 98, 100, 101–102 fiber, 64, 66 genetic factors, 94, 102 homeostasis, 103, 105 hormones and, 94, 97, 99, 104, 106 immune system, 99, 103 infants, 96–97, 99–100, 101–103, 104 iron, 94, 95, 98–100, 102, 131, 138, 191, 192, 193 anemia, 80, 81, 82–83, 99–100, 101, 124–125, 126, 129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 138 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 insects, 96, 97 intestines, 99, 117 lactation, 96, 103 magnesium, 94, 97–98, 191, 256–257 manganese, 95, 99, 101–102, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257 metabolism, 66, 95, 96–97, 99, 104, 105, 106, 117 muscles, 95, 97, 105 milk, 98, 99, 100, 102 nervous system, 95, 99, 102 potassium, 94, 99, 104, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257 reproductive system, 96, 99–100, 104–105 pregnancy, 102–103, 104, 105, 106, 115 selenium, 2, 94, 104–106, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257 sex differences, 98, 103, 104–105, 107 skin, 102, 103, 105 sodium, 94, 96, 98, 105, 153, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257 sulfur, 2, 77, 94, 96, 98, 213–227, 256–257 supplements, 96, 98, 101, 102, 103, 256–257, 261 teeth, 95, 109 toxicity, 94–95, 97–98, 105–106, 110, 121–122, 155 trace minerals, 94, 98–107, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257 water, contents of, 155–156 wild environment, 94, 96–97, 100 zinc, 94, 99, 102, 102–104, 115, 166–167, 191, 193, 213–227, 256–257 Monosaccharides, 58 Muscles and muscular activity, 171, 172 see also Physical activity energy requirements, 41 environmental enhancement, 260 fats, 92 minerals, 95, 97, 105 vitamins, 124, 137–138 water, 150, 152 N National Institutes of Health, 183 Nervous system see also Brain aging, 167 carbohydrates, 58 diabetes, 176 fats, 89 minerals, 95, 99, 105 proteins, 79, 82, 84 vitamins, 113, 116, 118, 119–120, 129, 132, 136, 137 water, 150, 152, 155, 156 Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), 62–66, 67–70, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 197–212 Niacin, 131–132, 191–192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Nitrogen, 138 energy requirements, 42, 61 fecal loss, 77 feeding ecology, 21 protein requirements, 75, 77, 80 Nocturnal species, general environmental enhancement, 259 feeding ecology, 6–13 (passim) Nutrient composition, 26, 164, 182, 184, 188, 195, 260 NutritionalEnergetics of Domestic Animals, 42 O Obesity, 2, 151, 167, 172–176, 185 age factors, 172–173, 174, 175 sex differences, 173, 174 Oils, see Fats and oils Oilseeds, 91, 102, 107, 192, 258 Olfactory factors, 184, 185 Oligosaccharides, 58, 59, 62

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 Oral cavity, 3, 185 fiber, 62 minerals, 95, 107 vitamins, 125, 132, 135, 138, 140 Osteoporosis, 95, 167 P Pancreas, 59, 82, 84, 123, 168, 191 diabetes, 2, 151, 153, 167, 168, 169, 173–176 Pantothenic acid, 130–131, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Pectin, 60, 62 Pellets, 83, 121, 138, 167, 168, 183, 184, 185, 186 Perception, see Eyes; Olfactory factors; Tactile perception; Taste Phenylalanine, 2, 79 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 Phosphorus, 94, 95–97, 99, 107, 170, 191, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 vitamins and, 116, 117, 119, 122, 124, 128, 132, 140 Physical activity, 159 see also Muscles and muscular activity; Obesity energy requirements, 44, 47 water, 152 Plant feeding, 64, 65–66, 67, 75, 135, 185, 187, 188, 260, 263 see also Carbohydrates; Fiber; Fruit; Leaves; Seeds; specific fruits and vegetables bamboo, 10, 187, 197, 213 bark, 101, 188, 261 browse, general, 26, 96, 186, 187 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 197–258 digestion, 23, 26, 28–29 feeding ecology, 5–21 (passim) foraging, 2, 5, 21, 26, 53, 68, 184, 259–263 water, 154, 187, 194 Polysaccharides, 58, 59–60, 63 Potassium, 94, 98, 104, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 Pregnancy, 2, 161 energy requirements, 53 minerals, 102–103, 104, 105, 106, 115 protein, 75, 80, 104 vitamins, 115, 121, 124, 128, 134–135 water, 150, 151 Proteins, 2, 61, 62, 75–86, 166, 171, 186, 191, 192, 193 see also Amino acids age factors, 77, 78, 80–83 growth and development, 77, 80–83, 171 albumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–80, 81, 83, 102, 132, 153 lactalbumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–80 body composition and weight, 76, 77, 79, 80–81, 83, 102, 155 brain, 79, 84 caloric measures, 77, 80, 80–83 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 197–255 diet formulation, 183 diseases, deficiencies caused by, 75, 79, 80–84 eggs, 75, 76, 83 energy requirements, 42, 50, 76, 77, 81 feeding ecology, 22 fats and, 88 infants, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82 lactalbumin, 75, 76, 77, 79–80 lactation, 75, 80 lipoproteins, 88, 89, 92, 123–124, 166, 171, 173 metabolic processes, 83, 97, 129, 154, 165–166 milk, 75, 76, 81, 83 minerals and, 83, 95, 96, 98, 100, 104–105, 107 nervous system, 79, 81, 84 pregnancy, 75, 80, 104 sex differences, 78, 82–83 skin, 79, 81 soya, 75, 77, 79, 83–84, 97, 99, 191 supplements, 78, 79, 82, 105, 107, 129 vitamins and, 123–124, 127, 128, 141 water, 83, 153, 154, 155 Psychological well-being, 3, 186, 259–265 aggressive behavior, 79, 116, 259, 261–262 R Renal system, 58, 83, 96, 98 vitamins, 119, 120, 124 water, 153, 154, 156 Reproductive system and reproduction, 159 see also Lactation; Pregnancy diet formulation, 183 energy requirements, 41, 43, 49, 53 minerals, 96, 99–100, 104–105 vitamins, 134–135 water, 150 Requirements energy, 41, 43, 49, 53, 60, 83, 186, 191 mineral, 95 protein, 43–48, 75–77, 80 vitamin, 58 water, 156–157 Respiratory system, 150, 152, 154 Retina, see Eyes Research methodology see also Caloric measures; Standards aging, 167–170 birth to weaning, 159, 161, 167 body composition, 171–172

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 carbohydrates and fiber, 61–64, 66 committee report at hand, 1 diet formulation, 182–183 energy requirements, 41–43, 47–48, 50–54 ethical issues, 77 feeding ecology, 5, 13, 16, 18, 20 minerals, 94, 99 obesity, 172–175 proteins, 75–82 sampling, 5, 13 taxonomy, vii, 2, 3, 266–267 vitamins, 113, 116, 122–123, 125, 126, 127, 133, 139 water requirements, 151, 156–157 weight equivalents/conversion factors, tables, 268 Riboflavin, 129–130, 131, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Rice, 83 S Sampling, 5, 13 Seasonal factors, 65–66 see also Temperature and thermoregulation factors carbohydrates, 60, 64 feeding ecology, 6–20 (passim) water, 153–154 humidity, 152–153, 154 Seeds, 11, 12, 262 carbohydrates, 58 digestion, 23 feeding ecology, 6–16 (passim), 19, 185 minerals, 102 oilseeds, 91, 102 protein requirements, 75 water, 154 Selenium, 2, 94, 104–106, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 Sensory perception, see Eyes; Olfactory factors; Tactile perception; Taste Sex differences see also Lactation; Pregnancy; Reproductive system and reproduction aging, 167, 168, 170 amino acids, 79 body composition and weight, general, 159, 162–163, 171 energy requirements, 44, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52 feeding ecology, 6–13 (passim) menopause, 167, 170 minerals, 98, 103, 104–105, 107 obesity, 173, 174 protein, 78, 82–83 vitamins, 115, 119, 122, 134 water, 150–155 (passim) Skin dermatitis, 79, 81, 103, 105, 130, 134 fats, 90 fold thickness, 172 minerals, 102, 103, 105 protein, 79, 81 vitamins, 116, 117–118, 120, 130 water, 152, 154 Social factors, 173 see also Environmental enhancement; Group size Sodium, 94, 96, 99, 105, 153, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 Soya, 75, 77, 79, 83–84, 97, 99, 191 Species (Tables of), 6–18 Stages of life, see Age factors Standards composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 197–241 energy requirements, 41 environmental enhancement, 259 growth, 159 vitamin measures, 113, 115, 117, 123, 126 water quality, 156 Starch, 59, 62, 82, 184, 185 Stomach, 191–192 carbohydrates, 60 digestion, general, 21, 24 feeding ecology, 13, 19 energy requirements, 50 minerals, 94, 106 Stress see also Environmental enhancement energy requirements, 52 protein, 76 Sucrose, 58, 59, 82, 174, 185 Sulfur, 2, 94, 96, 98 amino acids, 77 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 Supplements, 161, 167, 174, 186–187 fat, 90–91 mineral, 96, 98, 101, 102, 103, 256–257, 261 protein, 78, 79, 82, 105, 107, 129 vitamin, 105, 114, 122, 125, 129–136 (passim), 140, 141, 183, 184, 261 T Tactile perception, 184, 185, 260, 261 Taste, 103, 184, 185, 260–261 Taxonomy, vii, 2, 3, 266–267

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 Taurine, 2, 79, 98, 166, 192 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 Temperature and thermoregulation factors aging, 169 cold, 44, 47, 152 energy requirements, general, 41, 43, 44, 47, 50 feed processing, 183–184 heat, 47, 150, 152–153, 154 soy, 83–84 starch, 62 water, 150, 152–153, 154 Terrestrial species, general environmental enhancement, 259, 261 feeding ecology, 5–22 (passim) Thermoregulation, see Temperature and thermoregulation factors Thiamin, 128–129, 184, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Threonine, 78, 242–255 Thyroid gland, 104, 106 Time factors see also Diurnal species; Nocturnal species clotting, vitamin K, 128 digestion, 21, 24, 26, 41 feeding ecology, 5–13 (passim), 18, 19–20, 259, 260, 261–262 foraging, 259, 260, 261 minerals, 101 vitamin deficiencies, 129 water deprivation, 153 Toxicity, vii, 188 minerals, 94–95, 97–98, 105–106, 107, 121–122, 155 vitamins, 2, 115–116, 121–122 Trace minerals, 94, 98–107, 192 chromium, 96, 101, 108–109, 192, 193 cobalt, 2, 94, 106, 135–137 copper, 2, 99, 100–101, 131, 191, 193, 213–227, 256–257 iodine, 104, 193, 213–227 iron, 94, 95, 98–100, 102, 131, 138, 191, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257 manganese, 94, 95, 99, 101–102, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257 selenium, 2, 94, 104–106, 192, 193, 213–227, 256–257 zinc, 94, 99, 101, 102–104, 115, 166–167, 191, 193, 213–227, 256–257 Treat feeding, 186, 260 Tryptophan, 2, 79, 131, 132 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 U Ultraviolet radiation, 96, 117, 118, 120, 121 Urine energy requirements, 43 protein, excessive, 83 vitamins, 124 water, 150, 152, 155 V Valine, 137, 186 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 242–255 Vegetation, see Plant feeding Visual perception, see Eyes Vitamin A, 113–116, 118, 184, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 228–241 Vitamin B, 60, 94, 106, 131, 132–133, 135–137, 192, 193 choline, 128, 130, 140, 141, 194, 228–241 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Vitamin C, 101, 129, 137–140, 183, 184, 185, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Vitamin D, 96, 97, 116–122, 128, 166, 184, 192, 193 aging, 170 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Vitamin E, 1–2, 90–91, 105, 120–121, 122–126, 127, 184, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Vitamin K, 116, 126–128, 192, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 Vitamins, general, 20–21, 83, 98, 113–151, 183, 184, 185, 191, 192 absorption, 114, 123, 124, 134, 137 age factors, 125, 127, 133, 139, 167–168 growth and development, 118, 121, 130, 135 amino acids and, 124, 131 bioavailability, 123, 124, 128–136 (passim) body composition and weight, 115, 119, 124, 127–141 (passim) bone, 117, 118, 119, 121, 125, 127–128, 134, 137–138 cardiovascular disease, 128–129, 132 calcium and, 116, 117, 119, 121–122, 128, 131, 138 cellular biology, 113, 124, 131–132, 140–141 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 228–241 cholesterol and, 123, 125, 126, 141 deficiencies, diseases caused by, 90–91, 115, 117–118, 119–120, 124–141 (passim) dry matter, 115, 118, 121, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 134, 135, 136, 139 composition of food/feed ingredients, tables, 228–241 enzymes and, 124, 128, 129, 130, 132, 134, 135, 137 eyes, 113, 116, 125, 130, 136 fats and, 2, 123, 124, 125, 141 fat-soluble, 88, 89, 90–91, 113–128, 228–241 feces, 123, 136 feed processing, 184, 185

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 genetic factors, 116–117, 134 hepatic system, 114, 123, 124, 128, 130, 131, 132, 136, 137, 141 homeostasis, 114, 116, 120 hormones and, 119–120 immune system, 119–120, 126, 131–132, 134, 135 infants, 117–118, 128 lactation, 117–118, 121, 128 metabolic processes, 2, 114, 115, 117, 118–120, 123–133 (passim), 135, 137, 138, 140, 141 milk, 117–118, 128 muscles, 124, 137–138 nervous system, 113, 116, 118, 119–120, 129, 132, 136, 137 oral cavity, 125, 132, 135, 138, 140 phosphorus and, 116, 117, 119, 122, 124, 128, 132, 140 pregnancy, 115, 121, 124, 128, 134–135 proteins and, 123–124, 127, 128, 141 renal system, 119, 120, 124 reproductive system, 134–135 sex differences, 115, 119, 122, 134 skin, 116, 117–118, 120, 130 standard measures, 113, 115, 117, 123, 126 supplements, 105, 114, 122, 125, 129–136 (passim), 140, 141, 183, 184, 261 toxicity, 2, 115–116, 121–122 water-soluble, 2, 128–142, 228–241 Vitamins, other specific biotin, 133–134, 191, 192, 193, 228–241 carnitine, 141 choline, 128, 130, 140–141, 194, 228–241 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 228–241 folacin, 134–135, 136, 192, 228–241 inositol, 141–142 niacin, 131–132, 191–192, 193, 228–241 pantothenic acid, 130–131, 192, 193, 228–241 riboflavin, 129–130, 131, 192, 193, 228–241 thiamin, 128–129, 184, 192, 193, 228–241 wild environment, 119, 121, 122 W Water, 2, 150–158, 185 age factors, 150, 151, 153, 155 body composition and weight, 150–155 (passim) bone, joint lubrication, 150 cardiovascular disease, 151, 152 cellular biology, 150, 151–152, 156 cobalt, 107 digestion, 150 diseases, deficiencies caused by, 151–152, 153, 154, 155 pollution caused by, 155–156 environmental enhancement, 262–263 fats and, 150, 151, 153, 155 feces, 150, 154–155 fluorine, 107 homeostasis, 153, 156 hormones and, 150, 156 humidity, 152–153, 154 infants, 150, 151 metabolic processes, 150–157 (passim) minerals, 155–156 muscles, 150, 152 nervous system, 150, 152, 155, 156 pregnancy, 150, 151 proteins, 83, 153, 154, 155 quality of, 155–156 renal system, 153, 154, 156 respiratory system, 150, 152, 154 riboflavin, 129–130 sex differences, 150–155 (passim); see also “pregnancy” supra skin, 152, 154 sodium, 99 thermoregulation, 150, 152–153, 154 urine, 150, 152, 155 Weaning, 159, 161, 167 Weight, see Body composition and weight Wheat, 60, 77, 78, 79, 84, 102, 183 Wild environment, 182, 184, 185, 260–261 see also Endangered species body weight, 159 browse, general, 26, 96, 186, 187, 261, 262 carbohydrates, 64–66 digestion, 26, 27 endangered species, vii, 1 energy requirements, 47, 52 fiber, 64–66, 67–68, 69 foraging 2, 5, 53, 68, 184, 259–263 minerals, 94, 96–97, 100 obesity, 172 protein requirements, 75 vitamins, 119, 121, 122 World Health Organization, 117 World Wide Web, see Internet Wound healing, 170–171 Z Zinc, 94, 99, 101, 102–104, 115, 166–167, 191, 193 composition of food/feed ingredients, table, 213–227, 256–257 Zoo animals, vii, 27, 48, 94

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications Policy and Resources Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987) Agricultural Biotechnology and the Poor: Proceedings of an International Conference, (2000) Agriculture and the Undergraduate: Proceedings (1992) Agriculture’s Role in K-12 Education: A Forum on the National Science Education Standards (1998) Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs (2003) Alternative Agriculture (1989) Animal Biotechnology: Science Based Concerns (2002) Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (1998) Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy (1996) Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: A Profile (1995) Countering Agricultural Bioterrorism (2002) Designing an Agricultural Genome Program (1998) Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988) Ecological Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops (2001) Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century (1996) Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption (1998) Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: The Scope and Adequacy of Regulation (2002) Emerging Animal Diseases: Global Markets, Global Safety: Workshop Summary, (2002) Exploring Horizons for Domestic Animal Genomics. (2002) Forested Landscapes in Perspective: Prospects and Opportunities for Sustainable Management of America’s Nonfederal Forests (1997) Frontiers in Agricultural Research: Food, Health, Environment, and Communities (2003) Future Role of Pesticides for U.S. Agriculture (2000) Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984) Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation (2000) Incorporating Science, Economics, and Sociology in Developing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards in International Trade (2000) Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989) Investing in the National Research Initiative: An Update of the Competitive Grants Program in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (1994) Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies (1993) Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees (1991) Managing Global Genetic Resources: Livestock (1993) Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (1991) National Capacity in Forestry Research (2002) National Research Initiative: A Vital Competitive Grants Program in Food, Fiber, and Natural-Resources Research (2000) New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities (1985) Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Update (2000) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, Second Revised Edition (2002) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Tenth Revised Edition (1998) Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986) Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Precision Agriculture in the 21st Century: Geospatial and Information Technologies in Crop Management (1997) Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests (2002) Professional Societies and Ecologically Based Pest Management (2000) Publicly Funded Agricultural Research and the Changing Structure of U.S. Agriculture (2002) Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands (1994) Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987) Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for a New Century (2001) Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture (1993) Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986); Volume 2 (1986) Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics (1993) Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991)

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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition, 2003 The Role of Chromium in Animal Nutrition (1997) The Scientific Basis for Estimating Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Interim Report (2002) The Scientific Basis for Predicting the Invasive Potential of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests in the United States (2002) The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks (1999) Toward Sustainability: A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (1991) Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988) Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks, The (1999) Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992) Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life Cycle Analysis (1997) Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles Building a North American Feed Information System (1995) Metabolic Modifiers: Effects on the Nutrient Requirements of Food-Producing Animals (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition, Update (2000) Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985) Nutrient Requirements of Fish (1993) Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989) Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, Fourth Revised Edition (1995) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Ninth Revised Edition (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Tenth Revised Edition (1998) Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986) Role of Chromium in Animal Nutrition (1997) Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century (2001) Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987) Further information, additional titles (prior to 1984), and prices are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC, 20001; 202-334-3313 (information only). To order any of the titles you see above, visit the National Academies Press bookstore at http://www.nap.edu/bookstore.