TABLE 1-1 Prosimian Feeding Ecology

Scientific Name

Common Name

Dieta

Behavior

Body Weightb

References

100% insectivorous

Tarsius

T. bancanus

T. dianae

T. pumilus

T. spectrum

T. syrichta

Western tarsier

Dian’s tarsier

Pygmy tarsier

Spectral tarsier

Philippine tarsier

Animal prey 100%; T. bancanus example: beetles 35%, ants 21%, locusts 16%, cicadas 10%, cockroaches 8%, vertebrates 11% of feeding time (not seen eaten by all Tarsius); also eaten: crickets, mantids, moths

Nocturnal, arboreal, solitary or pairs or multimale/ multifemale, group size 2-6 individuals

77.6-117 g females, 27.5-134 g males

Crompton & Andah, 1986; Fogden, 1974; Gursky, 1996; Kappeler, 1991; MacKinnon & Mackinnon, 1980a; Niemitz, 1984; Nietsch & Niemitz, 1991; Tremble et al., 1993

Mostly insectivorous

Allocebus

A. trichotis

Hairy-eared dwarf lemur

In wild, unknown; in captivity, insects 70%, sweetened rice broth, fruit

Nocturnal, arboreal, forage solitary or male/female pair, sleep 2-6

78-90 g females, 75-98 g males

Albignac et al., 1991; Kappeler, 1991; Meier & Albignac, 1991; Mittermeier et al., 1994

Arctocebus

A. aureus

A. calabarensis

Golden angwantibo

Angwantibo

Animal prey 79% (73-85%), fruit 13% (12-18%), other vegetation 8%; prey: caterpillars 77% (65-90%) crickets, beetles, ants

Nocturnal, arboreal, forage solitary, sleep 1-2

A. aureus 150-270 g; A. calabarensis 200-465 g

Bearder, 1987; Charles-Dominique, 1974; Charles-Dominique & Bearder, 1979; Gonzalez-Kirchner, 1995; Silva & Downing, 1995; Wolfheim, 1983

Galagoides

G. demidoff

G. thomasic

G. zanzibaricus

Demidoff’s bush baby

Thomas’s bush baby

Zanzibar bush baby

Animal prey 75% (70-81%), fruit 17% (4-30%), gums/ resins 5% (0-18%), leaves, buds; prey:moths, beetles, grasshoppers, ants, some birds

Nocturnal, arboreal (mostly), forage solitary, sleep (females) 1-10

G.demidoff 46-69 g females, 78-85 g males; G. thomasi 55-149 g; G. zanzibaricus 118-155 g females, 130-183 g males

Charles-Dominique, 1974; Gonzalez-Kirchner, 1995; Harcourt & Bearder, 1989; Harcourt & Nash, 1986; Hladik, 1979; Kappeler, 1991; Nash et al., 1989; Nash & Harcourt, 1986; Silva & Downing, 1995

Loris

L. tardigradus

Slender loris

Almost exclusively insects, small amount of young leaves, shoots, hard-rind fruits, flowers, eggs, small vertebrates; often insects strong smelling

Nocturnal, arboreal, forage solitary, sleep 2-4

102-322 g

Butynski, 1982; Petter & Hladik, 1970; Silva & Downing, 1995; Wolfheim, 1983

Omnivorous, gums dominate

Euoticus

E. elegantulus (Galago elegantulus)

E. pallidusc

Southern needle-clawed bush baby

Northern needle-clawed bush baby

Gums 55% (35-75%), animal prey 32% (20-44%), fruit 12% (5-20%), birds

Nocturnal, arboreal, forage solitary, sleep 1-7

271 g female, 270-360 g males

Butynski, 1982; Charles-Dominique, 1974, 1977; Charles-Dominique & Bearder, 1979; Gonzalez-Kirchner, 1995; Hladik, 1979; Kappeler 1991

Galago

G. senegalensis

G. moholi

Northern lesser bush baby

Southern lesser bush baby

Gums (Acacia) 48%, animal prey 52% (butterflies, moths, beetles), gums from 2 tree species, no vertebrate prey

Nocturnal, arboreal, forage solitary, sleep 1-3

G. senegalensis 126-193 g females, 125-212 g males; G. moholi 140-229 g females, 160-255 g males

Bearder, 1987; Bearder & Doyle, 1974; Bearder & Martin, 1979; Doyle, 1979; Doyle & Bearder, 1977; Harcourt & Bearder, 1989; Nash & Whitten, 1989; Silva & Downing, 1995

Otolemur

O. crassicaudatus (Galago crassicaudatus)

Thick-tailed greater bush baby

Gums 44% (18-62%), fruit 27% (21-33%), animal prey 14% (1-27%) (invertbrates and vertebrates), nectar 4% (0-8%), seeds 3% (0-7%), misc. vegetable matter 8% (0-16%)

Nocturnal, arboreal, male solitary, female and offspring forage together, sleep 1-6

1122-1497 g females, 1126-1750 g males

Bearder & Doyle, 1974; Butynski, 1982; Doyle & Bearder, 1977; Kappeler, 1991; Masters et al., 1988

Phaner

P. furcifer

Fork-marked lemur

Tree gum (resins) bulk of diet, some fruit, sap, animal matter 10%, flowers, buds, nectar, secretions of Homoptera insects

Nocturnal, arboreal, solitary or male/ female pairs, sleep 1-4

350-600 g

Charles-Dominique & Petter, 1980; Hladik, 1979; Hladik et al., 1980; Kappeler, 1991; Pariente, 1979; Petter et al., 1971, 1975



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