2. Several of the more high-profile failures have resulted in hundreds of millions of dollars being spent over several years. For instance, the Federal Aviation Administration has spent $42 billion to modernize the air traffic control system over the past two decades, and the system has still not been completed (see Chapter 3).
3. See Chapter 3 for a more in-depth discussion of these topics.
4. The Next Generation Internet program encompasses three related efforts: research on, and development of, new networking technologies; development of revolutionary applications that take advantage of enhanced networking capabilities; and deployment of several testbed networks across which new technologies can be deployed and revolutionary applications can be run. Additional information is available online at <www.ngi.gov>.
5. The Digital Libraries Initiative is a multiagency initiative that, in its second phase, will pursue research related to the development of the next generation of digital libraries, both to advance the use and usability of globally distributed, networked information resources and to encourage existing and new communities to focus on innovative applications areas. The initiative attempts to stimulate the partnering arrangements needed to create next-generation operational systems in areas such as education, engineering and design, Earth and space sciences, biosciences, geography, economics, and the arts and humanities. Its sponsors include the NSF, DARPA, the National Library of Medicine, the Library of Congress, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The research centers on topics such as human-centered computing, content, and systems, as well as on testbeds and applications. Support is provided for both individual investigator grants and multidisciplinary research groups. Additional information about the program is available online at <www.dli2.nsf.gov>.
6. It is also true that federal agencies have had many successes in creating new computer systems, successes that do not get as much publicity as the problems. But these successes are more a testimonial to the skill and perseverance of federal IT managers than a reason to praise the available knowledge base.
7. These sectors include those defined by the following Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes: 357, office, computing, and accounting machines; 366, communications equipment; 367, electronic components (including semiconductor devices); 737, computer and data processing services; and 48, communications (e.g., telephone and other communications services).
8. Linda Cohen, a member of the study committee, and Jerry Sheehan, a member of the CSTB staff, are examining this issue in greater detail. They will produce a summary paper on their findings late in the year 2000.
9. On April 9, 1997, the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) became the new standard code system to describe business establishments and industries, replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. This new system will be used by the U.S., Mexican, and Canadian governments to collect and distribute statistical information.
10. Recommendation 5.1 echoes a recommendation from an earlier CSTB report that also called for an expanded research agenda for computer science. See CSTB (1992).
11. David Patterson, University of California at Berkeley, personal communication, April 6, 2000.
12. As noted in Chapter 4, Microsoft announced a partnership with MIT in 1999 to pursue educational technologies. Microsoft is investing $25 million in the effort, and projects will be managed by a steering committee consisting of equal numbers of members from Microsoft Research and MIT.