Index

A

a2b music, 73

AAS. See Advanced Automation System

Abilene network, 132

Abstraction, 120

Abt Associates, Inc., 193-194

Academic networks, 133

Academic research gaps in,

interdisciplinary, 168-179

Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), 61, 96

Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs), 133

Additions to systems, unintended and unanticipated consequences of, 5

Administrative challenges, 154

associated with large-scale systems, 118

Advanced Automation System (AAS), 105

Advanced computational science, research in, 62

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 46

Aetna, 83-84

Agenda. See Research agenda

Air traffic control (ATC) system, 149

modernizing, 105, 213

Airport Surface Detection Equipment, 105

Akamai Technologies, Inc., 92

Alto computer, 21, 97

Always-up systems, goal for information technology research, 24

Amazon.com, 83-84, 86, 97, 117

America Online Inc., 81

AMRIS, 104

Andersen Consulting, 8, 79-80, 97

Apple Computer, 30, 179

Macintosh, 21

Appliances, information, 107

Applications, 32 .

See also Group applications;

Social applications research

diffusion of, 170

Applications research, 157

Applied research, defining, x, 28-29

“Appropriability” problem, 74-75

Architectural approaches

defining, 138

design of research programs for, 126-127

ARPANET, 96, 131

historical perspective on, 21, 140

Artifacts, 140

ASCI. See Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative

Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM), 91-92

ATC. see Air traffic control system



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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS Index A a2b music, 73 AAS. See Advanced Automation System Abilene network, 132 Abstraction, 120 Abt Associates, Inc., 193-194 Academic networks, 133 Academic research gaps in, interdisciplinary, 168-179 Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), 61, 96 Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs), 133 Additions to systems, unintended and unanticipated consequences of, 5 Administrative challenges, 154 associated with large-scale systems, 118 Advanced Automation System (AAS), 105 Advanced computational science, research in, 62 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 46 Aetna, 83-84 Agenda. See Research agenda Air traffic control (ATC) system, 149 modernizing, 105, 213 Airport Surface Detection Equipment, 105 Akamai Technologies, Inc., 92 Alto computer, 21, 97 Always-up systems, goal for information technology research, 24 Amazon.com, 83-84, 86, 97, 117 America Online Inc., 81 AMRIS, 104 Andersen Consulting, 8, 79-80, 97 Apple Computer, 30, 179 Macintosh, 21 Appliances, information, 107 Applications, 32 . See also Group applications; Social applications research diffusion of, 170 Applications research, 157 Applied research, defining, x, 28-29 “Appropriability” problem, 74-75 Architectural approaches defining, 138 design of research programs for, 126-127 ARPANET, 96, 131 historical perspective on, 21, 140 Artifacts, 140 ASCI. See Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM), 91-92 ATC. see Air traffic control system

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS AT&T Corporation, 179 expenditures on R&D, 64, 77-78 historical structuring of, 81 patents held by, 84 recent trends in research by, 30-31 redirection of research at, 72-73 work on speech recognition, 21 AUPs. see Acceptable Use Policies AUTM. see Association of University Technology Managers Automata theory, 139 Automatic programmer capability, goal for information technology research, 24 Availability issues, 116-118 B BAAs. see Broad agency announcements BankBoston, 92 Basic research, defining, x, 26 Bell Atlantic, 102 Bell Communications Research Corporation (Bellcore), 77 Bell Laboratories, 72, 76-77 Benchmarks, 139 Berkeley Wireless Research Center, 182 Billing fraud, detecting, 76 Boeing Company, 66, 80, 83, 97 Brahe, Tycho, 26 Broad agency announcements (BAAs), 62-63 Brooks, Fred, 139 Brooks-Sutherland report, 121 Bugs, 116 testing for, 112 Bureau of Land Management, troubled systems at, 102 Bureau of the Census, 49, 64, 66, 96 need for the National Science Foundation to work with, 13, 205-206 Business process challenges, 154 Business research, related to information technology, 169 Business system context, embedding large-scale systems within larger, 6 Business Week Online, C C programming language, 23 CAD. see Computer-aided design California Department of Motor Vehicles, troubled systems at, 102-103 California Institute of Technology, Computational Facility for Simulating the Dynamic Response of Materials, 96 Carnegie Mellon University, 17, 29, 62, 90, 92, 163 Department of Engineering and Public Policy, 173 Information Networking Institute, 182 Software Engineering Institute, 158-159 CASE. see Computer-aided software engineering tools Case research, 124, 156 CBO. see Congressional Budget Office CCIC. see Committee on Computing, Information and Communications Census Bureau. See Bureau of the Census Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, 96 Center for Integrated Turbulence Simulation, 96 Center for Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, 96 Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets, 96 Central research laboratories, countertrend in, 76-79 Challenges. See Research challenges Changes to systems, unintended and unanticipated consequences of, 5 Changing needs of users, 5 Chronicle of Higher Education, CIAO. see Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office CIC. see Committee on Information and Communications Cisco Systems, 81, 86, 92 expenditures on R&D, 70, 78 CISE. see Computing and Information Science and Engineering directorate Citicorp, 83-84 Civil engineering applications, 158 Clickstream data, analyzing, 180 Clinton, President William, 47 Clinton Administration, xii, 3, 10, 62, 198, 201 Cohen, Wes, 163 Collaboration applications involving, 106 challenges in, 153

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS encouragement of interdepartmental by universities, 206-207 Columbia University, programs in medical informatics, 171 Commerce, electronic, 7 Commercial equipment and supplies industry sector, 64, 68 Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology, 110 Commercialization challenge of in social applications of information technology, 151-152 of university research, 91-93 Committee on Computing, Information and Communications (CCIC), 120 Committee on Information and Communications (CIC), 121 Committee on Information Technology Research in a Competitive World, xiv, 2 Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), 183, 185, 194 Committee to Assess the Scope and Direction of Computer Science and Technology, 39-40 Communications, influx from researchers, 62-63 Communications equipment industry sector, 64-65, 68 Communications services industry sector, 64-65, 68 expenditures on R&D, 67 Communities, electronic, 7 Community challenges, 153 Companies. See Information technology companies; individual companies Compaq Computer, 70, 81 Competitiveness, 43 maximizing effectiveness of, 218 Complexity challenges associated with large-scale systems, 5, 108-110 in social applications research, 7 Component software, 129-130 Component vendors, expenditures on R&D, 65 Components, 32 dealing with large numbers of, 5 deep interactions among, 5 independently designed, 5 untrustworthy, 110 Components industry sector, 64-65, 68 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, complying with, 61 Computation and Social Systems (CSS) program, 174-176 Computational Facility for Simulating the Dynamic Response of Materials, 96 Computer-aided design (CAD), 83 Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, 104 Computer and data processing services industry sector, 64-65, 68 expenditures on R&D, 65, 67 Computer graphics, historical perspective on, 21 Computer science, 4, 6, 13, 17, 26, 30, 49, 52, 55-57, 60-61, 83, 88-89, 93, 118, 126, 133, 144, 147, 150-151, 154, 159, 172, 175, 179, 182, 185-186, 195, 201, 206-207 federal obligations for research in, 55 Computer science and engineering (CS&E), 39-40 Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), ix, 2, 19-20, 38, 51, 79, 98, 140, 144, 161 Brooks-Sutherland report, 121 Committee to Assess the Scope and Direction of Computer Science and Technology, 39-40 Computing the Future, Computer Sciences Corporation, 79 Computer simulations, 96 Computer-supported cooperative work, 169 Computers assemblers of personal, 67, 76 based on quantum mechanics, 76 development of mouse for, 21 support and repair of, 65 Computers, Organizations, Policy, and Society (CORPS) group, 192 Computing, scientific, 46 Computing and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) directorate, 59, 174, 179, 202 Computing and Social System program, 12, 203 Computing industry sector, 64-65, 68 Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering,

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS Conducting research on social applications, 155-160 new research teams, 157-160 a plausible approach, 155-157 Conferencing, remote, 190 CONFIRM hotel reservation system, 102, 104 Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 31, 85 Consequences, of changes or additions to systems, 5 Consortia, 163 Constituencies supporting information technology research, 20 Construction industry, social applications of technology in, 158 Control Data Corporation, 30 Control of social applications of information technology, 152-153 Coordination of expertise, 153 of social applications of information technology, 152-153 Copyrights, limitations of, 75 Corporate espionage, 115 Corporate investment in research and development, disincentives to, 70-76 Corporation for National Research Initiatives, 132 CORPS. See Computers, Organizations, Policy, and Society group COSEPUP. See Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy COTS. See Commercial off-the-shelf technology Cray Research, 30 Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (CIAO), 47 Critical infrastructures, 7, 156 defining, 101 Critical success factors, 169 CS&E. See Computer science and engineering CSS. See Computation and Social Systems program CSTB. See Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Custom programming, 65 Customer support, gaining for innovation, 76 Customization, 139 “mass,” Customized consulting, 79 Cyber auctions, 181 D DARPA. See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Decision making, group dynamics and, 170 Decision support systems, 169 Decomposition, hierarchical, 112 Deconstructing wireless, 217-221 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 31, 56, 58-59, 62-63, 164, 166 historical perspective on, 21 Information Assurance and Survivability program, 122 involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123, 201 recommendations for new programs at, 11, 198-201 Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit Program, 21, 96 Defense contractors, 79-80 Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), 115 Dell Computer Corporation, 67, 76 Deloitte & Touche, 117 Denver International Airport, troubled systems at, 102 Department of Commerce, involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123 Department of Defense (DOD), 36, 51, 54, 56-59, 61-62, 161, 166 attacks on computers of, 115 Department of Energy (DOE), 51, 56-58, 61-62, 161, 200 involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123, 201 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 11, 57-59, 201 involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123 Design of large-scale systems, 118-133 large numbers of individuals involved in, 5-6 Design of research programs, 126-133 architectural approaches, 126-127 ecological and economic systems as models for, 128

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS extensions of existing approaches, 129-130 inspiration from natural and social systems, 127 software development processes, 127, 129 support for research infrastructure, 131-133 theoretical approaches, 126 Development disincentives to corporate investment in, 70-76 methodologies for, 154 DHHS. See Department of Health and Human Services Diffusion of applications, 170 Digital Equipment Corporation, 30 expenditures on R&D, 68, 70 Digital Government program, 12, 57-58, 141, 192, 202, 204 Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI), 12, 59-60, 203, 213 DISA. See Defense Information Systems Agency Disciplinary research . See also Interdisciplinary research; Other disciplines analogies to, 41 Discovery. See Knowledge discovery Discussion forums, 150 Disincentives, to corporate investment in research and development, 70-76 Display System Replacement program, 105 Distance education, technology supporting, Distributed operation and administration challenges, associated with large-scale systems, 118 Distributed systems, electronic commerce applications as, 119 Diversity, in the research base, 49-51 DLI. See Digital Libraries Initiative DOD. See Department of Defense DOE. See Department of Energy E E-checks, 181 E-commerce applications, 119, 191 redefining the business process, 152 E-coupons, 181 E-Lab, 193 E-mail, 150 Early-stage financing, 87 eBay, 86, 117 Ecological systems, as models for the design of research programs, 128 Economic growth, information technology companies' contribution to, 18 Economic implications of computing and communications, research in, 62 Economic structures, novel activities and shifts in, 7 Economic systems, as models for the design of research programs, 128 Economics of investment, in information technology research, 75 Economics research, contributing to information technology development, 170 EDI (electronic data interchange), Internet, 181 Edison, Thomas Alva, 26 EDS. See Electronic Data Services Education, technology supporting distance, 106 Electrical engineering, 13, 17, 30, 49, 52-55, 57, 88, 93, 150 Electronic commerce applications, 7, 149 as distributed systems, 119 Electronic communities, 7 Electronic components industry sector, 64-65, 68 Electronic data interchange. See EDI Electronic Data Services (EDS), 8, 79-80 Embedding information technology research in other disciplines, 185-187 Embedding large-scale systems, within larger social and business system context, 6 Emergent behaviors of systems, 5, 109 Employment, information technology companies' contribution to, 18 Encryption, 115 processing requirements for, 106 End-user organizations expenditures on R&D, 65 participation of, 160-166 research by, 15, 82-85, 209-211 End-users constantly changing needs of, 5 large numbers of, 6 need for companies to involve in their research, 15-16, 211

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS need for federal agencies to increase support for programs including, 12-13, 201-205 understanding behaviors of, 193 Endeavor expedition, 62 Engineering research centers (ERCs), 98, 183-184 ERCs. See Engineering research centers Ernst & Young, 79 E*Trade Securities, 83, 117 Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation's Information Infrastructure, Expanded systems, difficulties with, 113 Expanding the scale and scope of information technology research, 195-213 recommendations for government, 197-206 recommendations for industry, 209-211 recommendations for universities, 206-209 Expanding the systems research agenda, 124-126 Expansion financing, 87 Expeditions into the 21st Century, 63, 96 Extensions of existing approaches, in the design of research programs, 129-130 F FAA. See Federal Aviation Administration Faculty encouraging participation of in interdisciplinary research, 13-14, 206-208 needing to pioneer information technology research, 14-15, 208-209 Failures complexity of, 112 hardware, 116 Farrell, Joseph, 223 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 11-12, 35, 57, 200 attacks on computers of, 115 troubled systems at, 102-103, 105, 213 Federal Communications Commission, 219 Federal Information Services and Applications Council (FISAC), 192 Federal Information Systems Advisory Committee (FISAC), 204 Federal information technology research programs, xi, 60-63 Federal Reserve, 18 Federal support for information technology research, 51-63 levels of, 20 need for classifying data on, 13, 205-206 need for increased, 9-11, 197-198 role of, ix sources of, 56-58 styles of, 58-60 trends in, 52-56 in universities, 89 Fidelity Investments Institutional Services Company, Inc., 138 Fingerprint-authentication technology, 73 First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) program (IBM), 165-166, 192, 211 FISAC. See Federal Information Services and Applications Council and Federal Information Systems Advisory Committee Flexibility challenges associated with large-scale systems, 111-114, 218 Florida fingerprint system, troubled systems at, 102 Focus Centers, 90, 98 Formalism, 139 Fundamental research, 66, 75 defining, x need for NSA and DARPA to establish programs for, 11, 198-201 Funding. See Investment in information technology research G GAO. See General Accounting Office Gaps in academic research, 90-91 in the research base, 79-81 Gateway, Inc., 67, 76 General Accounting Office (GAO), 105, 137 General Motors Corporation, 66 Generic research, 156 Genetic materials, information processing capabilities of, 76 Georgia Center for Advanced Telecommunications Technology, 182

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS Georgia Institute of Technology, Focus Center at, 98 Global Industries Division (IBM), 166 Global Positioning System Augmentation Program, 105 Global Services Division (IBM), 79 Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, 46, 56 Government research need for Bureau of the Census to work with the NSF on classifying data about, 13, 205-206 need for increased federal support for, 9-11, 197-198 need for increased support for interdisciplinary, 12-13, 201-205 need for NSA and DARPA to establish fundamental research programs, 11, 198-201 recommendations for expanding the scale and scope of, 9-13, 197-206 Government services, delivery of, 149 Graphical User Interfaces, historical perspective on, 21 Gray, Jim, 24 Group applications, of information technology, 149-150 Group dynamics, and decision making, 170 Gupta, Anoop, 98 H Hackers, damage done by, 115 Hardware failure, 116 Harvard Business School, 169 Hershey Foods, Inc., 102-103 Heterogeneity issues, 139 challenges associated with large-scale systems, 110-111 Hewlett-Packard reliability claims by, 138 systems integration services from, 79 Hidden Markov Models, 21 Hierarchical decomposition, 112 Hierarchies, status, 190 High-level programming languages, 23 High Performance Computing and Communications Act of 1991, xii High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program, Historical perspective on information technology research, 21 Horn, Paul, 72 HPCC program. See High Performance Computing and Communications program HPCCI. See High Performance Computing and Communications program Hubaux, Jean-Pierre, 223 Human-computer interaction (HCI), 147 research in, 62 Human error, 114, 116 I IBM Corporation, 8, 17, 211 expenditures on R&D, 66, 68, 70, 81 First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) program, 165-166, 192, 211 Global Industries Division, 166 Global Services Division, 79 historical structuring of, 81 industry solution units (ISUs), 165 Institute for Advanced Commerce, 180-181 patents held by, 84 recent trends in research by, 30-31 redirection of research at, 72 relational database research by, 21 Research Division, 81, 180 systems integration services from, 79 work on speech recognition, 21 Identity challenges, 153 “Imitation game,” Implementation of large-scale systems, improving, 118-133 Improving the design and implementation of large-scale systems, 118-133 designing a research program, 126-133 expanding the systems research agenda, 124-126 limitations of past research, 119-123 Independent requirements, large number of, 6 Independently designed components, 5 Individuals involved in design and operation, large numbers of, 5-6 Industry research changing structure of, 30-32 federal statistics concerning, 64-65 and gaps in the research base, 79-81

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS interdisciplinary, 179-180 need for closer ties with university research, 208 need for companies to involve end users in, 15-16, 211 recommendations for expanding the scale and scope of, 15-16, 209-211 systems integration, 79-81 Industry sectors, 64-65, 68 Industry solution units (ISUs), 165 Industry support for information technology research, xi, 64-87 countertrend in central research laboratories, 76-79 disincentives to corporate investment, 70-76 internships and sabbaticals, 166-168 need for classifying data on, 13, 205-206 and research by end-user organizations, 82-85 trends in, 66-70 venture capital support for innovation, 85-87 Information Age, 20 Information appliances, 107 Information Assurance and Survivability program, 122 Information economies, 181 Information management, research in, 62 Information Networking Institute, 182 Information sharing, 14, 170 Information technology (IT) business research related to, and strategic advantage, 169 expanding applications of, ix, 33-37 focus on, 20-23 future of, 1-2, 50 national debate about, ix need for leadership in, x progress in, 20, 25-26 retrospective assessments of, 28 social applications of, 144-148 Information technology companies contribution to economic growth, 18 contribution to employment, 18 expenditures on R&D, 69, 71 need to involve end-users in their research, 15-16, 211 Information technology developments implications for the research enterprise, 42-43 implications of information technology research for, 37-42 Information technology education and workforce, research in, 62 Information Technology for the Twenty-first Century (IT2) initiative, xii, 19, 61-63, 121, 186 Information technology industries, 64-65 supply chains in, 67 Information technology research, 23-37 changing environment for, 29-37 and changing industrial structure, 30-32 classification of, 26-29 constituencies supporting, 20 embedding in other disciplines, 185-187 and expanding applications of information technology, 33-37 expanding the scale and scope of, 187, 195-213 facets of, 23-29 federal support for, 12-13, 30-31, 51-63, 201-205 goals for, 24-25 historical perspective on, 21 implications of information technology developments for, 37-42 importance of, ix industry support for, 64-87 mechanisms for strengthening, xi mechanisms for supporting, 20 national debate about, ix research goals for, 24 resources for, 48-98 scope of, x-xi, 20 trends in, x varieties of, 23-26 Information Technology Research (ITR) initiative, xii, 60, 62, 121, 178-179, 193, 201-202 Information Week magazine, 82-83 Informix, relational database research by, 21 Infrastructure programs, limitations of, 132-133 Infrastructures critical, 7, 101, 156 existing, 132-133 underlying, 34 Innovation customer support for, 76 venture capital support for, 85-87

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS Inspiration from natural and social systems, in the design of research programs, 127 Institute for Advanced Commerce (IBM), 180-181 Integrated circuits . See also Systems integration funding research in, 78 Integrated Terminal Weather System, 105 Intel Corporation, 3, 81, 86 expenditures on R&D, 67, 70 Intel microprocessor architecture, 74 Intel Pentium microprocessors, 138 Intellectual property protection arrangements, 140 Intelligent systems, learning and, 178 Interactions among components, deep, 5 Interdepartmental collaboration, encouragement of by universities, 206-207 Interdisciplinary research in academia, 168-179 in industry, 179-180 need for federal agencies to increase support for, 12-13, 201-205 need for universities to encourage faculty and students in, 13-14, 206-208 Interfaces . See also Graphical User Interfaces efforts to develop intuitive, 79 research in human-computer, 62 Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 12, 35, 57, 200 troubled systems at, 102-103 International competitiveness issues, x Internet data on, 141 economics of, 170 future problems facing, 74, 76, 160 global dimensions of, 113 growth of, x, 4, 22, 30, 131 historical perspective on, 21 IPv4 protocol of, 74 IPv6 protocol of, 74 making more robust, 140, 201 search engines on, 92 Internet Internet EDI, 181 Internet service providers (ISPs), 133 data on, 141 “Internet time,” Internships and sabbaticals, 166-168 Intrico consortium, 104 Intuitive interfaces, efforts to develop, 79 Investment in information technology research . See also Corporate investment in research and development; Federal support for information technology research; Private-industry sector support for research economics of, 75 inadequacy of current, 4 IPv4 protocol, 74 IPv6 protocol, high cost of implementing, 74 IRS. See Internal Revenue Service ISPs. See Internet service providers ISUs. See Industry solution units IT. See Information technology IT2. See Information Technology for the Twenty-first Century J Java programming language, 23 JavaBeans, 130 Junior faculty, encouraging innovative work by, 209 K Katz, Michael, 223 KDI. See Knowledge and Distributed Intelligence initiative Kepler, Johannes, 26 Kleinrock, Leonard, 46, 145 Knowledge and Distributed Intelligence (KDI) initiative, 177-178 Knowledge content challenges, 153-154 Knowledge discovery, 106 Knowledge management defining, 191 in social applications of information technology, 150-151 Knowledge networking, 177-178 KPMG, 79

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS L Laboratories .See Research laboratories Lampson, Butler, 47 “Large-enough”-scale network systems, Large numbers of independent requirements, 6 of individuals involved in design and operation, 5-6 of users, 6 Large-scale-image databases, efforts to develop, 79 Large-scale systems defining, 3, 108 ecological and economic systems as models for, 128 examples of troubled, 102 faculty needing to pioneer research in, 14-15, 208-209 failure rate in development of, 99-100 improving the design and implementation of, 118-133 need for research into, 3 operational failures experienced by, 100 performance prediction in, 109 problems with, 5-6, 100-107 research on, 99-141 technical challenges associated with, 107-118 testing, 112 Layering, 120 Learning, and intelligent systems, 178 Leveson, Nancy, 90 Limitations, of past research, 119-123 Linux, 97 “Lock-in,” Lockheed Martin, 8, 80-81 Long-term research, 70, 74 Lucent Digital Radio, 73 Lucent Technologies, 8, 81 expenditures on R&D, 66, 76-78 redirection of research at, 72-73 LYCOS, 92 M Macintosh, 21 Management information, 62, 106 knowledge, 150-151 problems with, 103-104, 221 “supply-chain,” Manhattan Project, 26 Manufacturing design, 149 Marketplace factors, 76 Markov models, hidden, 21 “Mass customization,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 17, 90, 92, 211 educational venture with Microsoft, 179-180, 211, 213 Media Lab, 182 “professors of the practice” at, 167-168 Project Oxygen, 62, 96 Sloan School of Management, 84 MCC .See Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation MCI Corporation, expenditures on R&D, Mechanisms for social applications research, 160-187 embedding information technology research in other disciplines, 185-187 industry internships and sabbaticals, 166-168 interdisciplinary research in academia, 168-179 interdisciplinary research in industry, 179-180 multidisciplinary research centers, 180-185 participation of end-user organizations, 160-166 Mechanisms for strengthening information technology research, xi Mechanisms for supporting information technology research, 20 Media Lab, 182 Medical informatics, 163, 168 lessons from, 163, 171 Memex capability, goal for information technology research, 24 MEMS .See Microelectromechanical systems Merrill Lynch, 66, 83-84, 97 Trusted Global Advisor system, 97 Metcalfe, Robert, 97 Metcalfe's law, 97 Methodology research, 124 Metrorail, troubled systems at, 117 Microdrive device, 72 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), advances in, 106, 137

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC), 163-164 Micropayments, 181 Microprocessors, complexity of, 137 Microsoft Corporation, 3, 8, 81, 86, 179-180 educational venture with MIT, 179-180, 211, 213 expenditures on R&D, 65-67, 70, 81 recent trends in research by, 30 Microsoft Office, grammar checker in, 97 Microsoft Research, 78-79 Microsoft Windows standard, 74 Middleware, 138 MIT. See Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mobile code, 220 Modem Media, 193 Modularity, 120 Modules, reusable, 129-130 Moore's law, 22, 31, 108, 110 Motorola, Inc., 3, 97 Motorola Labs, 78 Mouse, development of, 21 Multidisciplinary research centers for, 180-185 difficulties with, 143 N Nanoscale devices, advances in, 106 National Academy of Engineering, 184 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 58-62, 161, 166, 200 involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123, 201 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 200 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 62, 200 involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 201 National Library of Medicine (NLM), 59, 171, 201 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 62 National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Computing, Information and Communications, National Science Foundation (NSF), x, 18, Computation and Social Systems program, 174-176 Engineering Directorate, 122 Engineering research centers, 98, 183-184 Information Technology Research (ITR) initiative, xii, 60, 62, 121, 178-179, 193, 201-202 Knowledge and Distributed Intelligence initiative, 177-178 need for Bureau of the Census to work with, 13, 205-206 programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology promoted by, 173-174 recommendations for new programs at, Scalable Enterprise Systems, 122-123 science and technology centers, 183, 185, 193 National Weather Service, troubled systems at, 102 Natural systems, inspiration for the design of research programs, 127 NEC Corporation, recent trends in research by, 30 Network Control Protocol, 140 Network effect, 74 Network externalities, 170 Network security, 221-223 Network systems academic, 133 “large-enough”-scale, 131 very high speed, 132 New York Stock Exchange, 102 Next Generation Internet (NGI) initiative, NGI. See Next Generation Internet initiative NIH. See National Institutes of Health NLM. See National Library of Medicine NOAA. See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Nomadicity, 110 Nortel, expenditures on R&D, 78 North American Industrial Classification System codes, efforts to implement, NSF. See National Science Foundation

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS NSFnet, commercialization of, 98 Numbers of components, dealing with large, 5 NYNEX, expenditures on R&D, 77 O 1 Gbps network systems, 132 Office, computing, and accounting machines industry sector, 64-65, 68 Open Market, Inc., 92 Operation Desert Storm, transport to, 29 Operation of large-scale systems, large numbers of individuals involved in, Operational challenges, 154 associated with large-scale systems, 118 Operational facilities, linking to multidisciplinary research centers, 182 Oracle, 8 expenditures on R&D, 81 relational database research by, 21 Organizations . See also End-user organizations novel activities and shifts in structures, 7 P PACI. See Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure Packet switching, historical perspective on, Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), 63, 179 redirection of research at, 73 PARC. See Palo Alto Research Center Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure (PACI), 59-60 Pasteur, Louis, 26 Pasteur-style research, 27-29 Patents, limitations of, 74-75 “Path-dependent effects,” Pentium Pro microprocessor, 137 PeopleSoft, 8 Performance prediction, in large-scale systems, 109 Personal computers, assemblers of, 67, 76 Personal memex capability, goal for information technology research, 24 Personal privacy challenges, 153 Persystant Technologies, 73 PITAC. See President's Information Technology Advisory Committee Portolano/Workscape, 62 Postel, Jonathan, 131 Prediction. See Performance prediction Prepackaged software, development of, 65, 81 President of the United States, 18 Presidential Decision Directive President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC), xii, 10, 19, 46-47, 62, 178, 190-191, 198 PricewaterhouseCoopers, 79, 98 Princeton University, deconstructing wireless, 217 Privacy, 153 Private-industry sector support for research, xi, 64-87 levels of, 20 Process handbook, 169 Processing, transaction, 139 Productivity issues, 169 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies industry sector, 64, 68 “Professors of the practice,” Programming custom, 65 efficiency of, 140 Programming languages . See also Automatic programmer capability high-level, 23 new designs for, 28 Programs. See Federal information technology research programs; Research programs Project Oxygen, 62, 96 Project Whirlwind, 21 Public goods, 75 Q Quantum mechanics, computers based on, 76 R R&D. See Research and development RBOCs. See Regional Bell operating companies

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS Recommendations, for expanding the scale and scope of information technology research, 9-16, 197-211 Reduced-instruction-set computing (RISC) historical perspective on, 21 microprocessors employing, 27 Reengineering applications, 146 Regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs), expenditures on R&D, 64, 77-78 Regulation, role of, 170 Reinventing applications, 146 Relational databases, historical perspective on, 21 Reliability issues, 116-118, 153 Remote conferencing, 190 Repairs, computer, 65 Representation and Analysis for Modeling, Specification, Design, Prediction, Control and Assurance of Large Scale, Complex Systems, Requirements, large numbers of independent, 6 Research . See also Academic research; University research case, 124, 156 countertrend in central laboratories, 76-79 defining, x, 17 economics, 170 by end-user organizations, 82-85 fundamental, 11, 66, 75, 198-201 generic, 156 goals for information technology research, 24 implications of information technology developments for, 42-44 limitations of past, 119-123 methodology, 124 multidisciplinary centers for, 180-185 need for, 4 quadrant model of, 27 quality of, 95 social science, 170 support for infrastructure, 131-133 targeted, 65-66, 70 telecommunications, 77-78 Research agenda, expanding, 3-4, 6, 8-9, 62, 124-126 Research and development (R&D), 1, 3, 61-62, 64-71, 80-83, 85 disincentives to corporate investment in, 70-76 need for companies to involve end users in, 15-16, 211 need for NSF and Bureau of the Census to classify data on investments in, Research base degree of consensus regarding, xii diversity in, 49-51 gaps in, 79-81 Research challenges in social applications of information technology, 148-155 commerce, 151-152 common, 153-154 coordination and control, 152-153 group applications, 149-150 knowledge management, 150-151 in system-specific research, 154-155 Research Division (IBM), 81, 180 Research motivated by social applications of information technology, 142-194 challenges in, 148-155 conducting, 155-160 defining, 144-148 expanding the scope of, 187 mechanisms for, 160-187 Research on large-scale systems, 99-141 improving the design and implementation of, 118-133 moving forward, 133-134 problems with, 100-107 technical challenges associated with, 107-118 Research programs design of, 126-133 designing, 126-133 Research teams, for conducting research on social applications, 157-160 Research topics involving social applications, 217-223 Researchers, influx of communications from, 62-63 Resources for information technology research, 48-98 . See also End-user organizations and diversity in the research base, 49-51 federal support for, 51-63 industry support for, 64-87 university research, 87-93 Retrospective assessments, of information technology, 28 Reusable modules, 129-130

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS Revolutionary computing, research in, 62 RISC. See Reduced-instruction-set computing RSA Data Security, 92 S Sabbaticals, 166-168 Sabre Group, 83-84 Safety, software, 90 SAGE defense system, 21 SAP, 8 expenditures on R&D, 81 Saudi Arabia, mobilizing war materiel to, Scalability issues, 139 goal for information technology research, 24, 137 problems with, 100 Scalable Enterprise Systems, 122-123 Scalable information infrastructure, research in, 62 Scaling Up: A Research Agenda for Software Engineering, Science and technology centers (STCs), 183, 185, 193, 203 Scientific computing, 46 Scope, of information technology research, x-xi, 20 Seagate Technologies, 67 Secure systems, 115-116 goal for information technology research, 24 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), corporate filings to, 66-67 Security challenges, 154 network, 221-223 SEMATECH, 163-164 Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC), 90, 163-164 Senior faculty, needing to pioneer information technology research, 14-15, 208-209 Sloan Foundation, 193 Sloan School of Management, 84 “Smart matter,” Social applications of information technology, 144-148 . See also Group applications defining, 3, 142 examples and features of, 149 need for federal agencies to increase support for, 12-13, 201-205 Social applications research, 7, 142-194 challenges in, 148-155 citizens, 156 critical infrastructure, 156 faculty needing to pioneer, 14-15, 208-209 groups, 155 mechanisms for, 160-187 organizations, 156 topics involving, 217-223 Social implications of computing and communications, 155 research in, 62 Social science research, 157-158 contributing to information technology development, 170 Social Security Administration, 12, 57, 200 Social structures, novel activities and shifts in, 7 Social systems embedding large-scale systems within larger contexts, 6 providing inspiration for the design of research programs, 127 Social trust challenges, 153 Sociotechnical systems, 3, 138, 142 Software . See also Middleware component, 129-130 development of prepackaged, 65, 81 research in, 62 Software bugs, 116 testing for, 112 Software developers, expenditures on R&D, 65 Software development methodologies for, 169 processes in the design of research programs, 127, 129 Software Engineering Institute, 158-159 Software engineering research, 157, 162 Software safety, 90 Speech-recognition, 72 historical perspective on, 21 Speech-to-text capability, goal for information technology research, 24 “Spin-ins” and “spin-outs,” Sprint Corporation, expenditures on R&D, SRC. See Semiconductor Research Corporation

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, 17, 213 efforts to replace, 96, 205 expansions of, 66 Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System, 105 Standish Group, 137-138 Stanford University, 90, 92 Center for Integrated Turbulence Simulation, 96 programs in medical informatics, 171 Stateless Architecture, 83 Status hierarchies, 190 STCs. See Science and technology centers Stokes, Donald, 26 Stokes' quadrant model of research, 27 Strategic advantage, information technology and, 169 Strengthening information technology research, mechanisms for, xi Students, encouraging participation of in interdisciplinary research, 13-14, 206-208 Styles of federal support, 58-60 Sun Microsystems, 92 Supplies industry sector, 64, 68 “Supply-chain” management, 106 Support for research infrastructure . See also Investment in information technology research computer, 65 in the design of research programs, 131-133 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne, deconstructing wireless, 217 Sybase, relational database research by, 21 Syracuse University, programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174 System-specific research challenges, in social applications of information technology, 154-155 Systems, 32 always-up, 24 consequences of changes or additions to, 5 deconstructing, 220 difficulties with upgrades, 113 emergent behaviors of, 5 secure, 24 sociotechnical, 138 trouble-free, 24 Systems integration, 65 challenge of, 79-81 expenditures on R&D in, 80 Systems research agenda, expanding, 124-126 T 3Com Inc., 97 Tablet computer, efforts to develop, 79 Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse, 34, 47 Targeted research, 65-66, 70 TCP/IP standard, 74 Technical challenges associated with large-scale systems, 107-118 complexity, 108-110 distributed operation and administration, 118 flexibility, 111-114 heterogeneity, 110-111 large scale challenges, 108 trustworthiness, 114-118 Telecommunications research, changes in, 77-78 Telepresence, 24 Testbed networks, 131 Testbeds, linking to multidisciplinary research centers, 182 Testing large-scale systems, 112 Text-to-speech capability, goal for information technology research, 24 Theoretical approaches, to the design of research programs, 126 Transaction processing, 139 Transforming applications, 146 Trends in federal funding, 52-56 in industrial support, 66-70 in support for university research, 88-90 Trouble-free systems, goal for information technology research, 24 Trusted Global Advisor system, 97 Trustworthiness challenges associated with large-scale systems, 110, 114-118, 153 availability issues, 116-118 reliability issues, 116-118 security issues, 115-116 Turing Award, 24 Turing test, 24

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MAKING IT BETTER: EXPANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TO MEET SOCIETY'S NEEDS U U S WEST, expenditures on R&D, 77 Unintended and unanticipated consequences, of changes or additions to systems, 5 Unit testing, 112 University of California at Berkeley, 17, 90, 92-93 deconstructing wireless, 217 Endeavor expedition, 62 Focus Center at, 98 programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174 relational database research at, 21 University of California at Irvine, 192 University of California at Los Angeles, programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174 University of Chicago, Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, 96 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets, 96 programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174 University of Michigan, 17 programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174 University of Utah, 21 Center for Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, 96 programs in medical informatics, 171 University of Washington, 92 Portolano/Workscape, 62 University research, 87-93 commercialization of, 91-93 faculty needing to pioneer information technology research, 14-15, 208-209 gaps in, 90-91 need for closer ties with industry research, 208 need for faculty and students to participate in interdisciplinary research, 13-14, 206-208 recommendations for expanding the scale and scope of, 13-15, 206-209 trends in support for, 88-90 Untrustworthy components, creating trustworthy systems from, 110 Upgrades, difficulties with, 113 US Air Force, SAGE defense system, 21 Usability issues, within large-scale systems, Users. See End-users V VC. See Venture capital Venture capital (VC), support for innovation, 31, 85-87 Venture One Corporation, 98 Veridical, Inc., 73 Very high speed network systems, 132 Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit Program, 21, 96 ViaVoice product, 72 Visual Insights, 72 Visualization, 96 von Hippel, Eric, 84 W Washington, DC, Metrorail, 117 Willamette microprocessor, 137 Wireless, deconstructing, 217-221 Work, changing nature of, 146 Workscape, 62 World memex capability, goal for information technology research, 24 World Wide Web, 150 capturing information from, 106 needs of, 25 recent growth of, 22 X Xerox Corporation, 17, 179 . See also Palo Alto Research Center Alto computer, 21, 97 expenditures on R&D, 66, 70 patents held by, 84 redirection of research at, 73 Y Yahoo, 86