science. Research in large-scale networking involves attempts to develop and deploy innovative technologies for high-speed networking and to experiment with applications that can take advantage of these networks. The NGI initiative falls into this category.8 Smaller amounts of funding are allocated to the development of high-confidence systems that have predictably high levels of availability and security; human-centered systems that enhance interactions between computers and users; and education, training, and human resources.
Other federal programs are aimed at more specific needs of federal agencies and contribute to the research base in different ways. For example, the DOE spent $484 million in 1999 on its Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), which is intended to develop technologies that will enable the agency to simulate the performance of nuclear weapons without testing them (in compliance with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty). Through this program, the DOE is establishing centers of excellence at five universities to pursue high-end computing systems and simulation software and is working with the developers of these systems.9 Meanwhile, NASA pursues a more limited program of IT research to develop tools and integrated systems for the design and manufacture of flight vehicles, to manage complex flight and aviation operation systems, and to automatically generate and verify flight-crucial software. The DOD research labs support a range of fundamental and applied research programs to serve military needs.
A new multiagency initiative, proposed under the name Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century (IT2) by the NSF is intended to boost fundamental IT research, particularly in the areas of scalability and software. In its first year (FY00), the initiative provided an additional $366 million in federal funding for IT R&D to support (1) long-term research in software, human-computer interfaces and information management, scalable information infrastructure, and high-end computing; (2) the procurement and deployment of advanced computers that are 100 to 1,000 times more powerful than those available in 1999, simulation software and tools to make the computers useful in scientific and engineering applications, and teams of researchers to work on them to solve challenging problems, and (3) research on the social and economic impacts of IT that will enhance the usefulness of IT systems, limit potential misuses of such systems (such as potential violations of privacy), and lead to better understanding of the ways in which knowledge, values, and systems of society influence the spread of IT and the acceptability of IT systems in various applications (NSTC, 1999a). The long-term research component, in particular, is an attempt to recapture the past success of federal funding for IT research and “lead to fundamental breakthroughs in computing and communications, in the same way that government