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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy Index A AARP. See American Association of Retired Persons audit study ACM. See Association for Computing Machinery ACWIA. See American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act ADEA. See Age Discrimination in Employment Act Adjunct faculty drawn from industry, making greater use of, 236, 294 Age and employment in the IT workforce, 7-8 distribution of Category 1 IT, Category 2 IT, and professional specialty workers, 141 of the Category 2 IT workforce, 86 Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 136-138 Age-related discrimination, 140-146 avoiding, 288 definition of, 136 impact on tightness in the IT labor market, 150 legal dimensions of, 136-138 legal theories for showing, 137-138 relieving perceptions of, 298n American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) audit study, on possible age-related discrimination against older IT workers, 146-148, 150 American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA), 161, 167-169 American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), 265 Assessment to expand the pool of immediately available workers, 9-10, 201-212 accounting for unintended bias, 204-205 effectiveness of assessment techniques and the role of job analysis , 205-209 future trends in assessment of IT workers, 211-212 legal dimensions of assessment, 209-211 research needed into, 302 structured methods for, 10, 206-207, 287-288 Associate's degrees, awarded in computer science, 82 Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 232, 235n, 247, 311 ASTD. See American Society for Training and Development
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy Attracting IT workers, 188-201 improved recruitment and retention, 194-199 increased use of overtime, 189-194 Attributes of IT workers, essential versus optional, 199-201 Availability of foreign IT workers to U.S. firms, 177-184 competition for foreign workers, 178-179 locating IT work abroad, 179-184 B Baccalaureate level, formal education at, 10-11, 228-240 Bachelor's degrees awarded in computer science, xi, 82 Category 1 IT workforce majority holding, 67-68 two-year turnover rates for IT and non-IT workers with, 95 Barriers to employers providing enough training, 297-298 Basic concepts supporting IT, understanding of needed for IT work, 56 Being Fluent with Information Technology , 292 Biotechnology, 317-330 and bioinformatics, 319-321, 328 global nature of sector, 321 impact on the economy, 321-324 number of companies and their valuation, 322-323 relationship to the pharmaceutical industry, 322-323 short history of, 317-318 similarities to and differences from IT industries, 329-330 Biotechnology Industry Organization, 318 Biotechnology workforce, 324-329 foreign worker participation in, 327 growth in, 324 trends in, 327-329 Black colleges and universities differences in the number of science, engineering, and IT-related graduates, from majority institutions , 238-239 lessons from, in promoting IT-related study, 238-239 BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bridging the Gap , 231n, 342 BSFs. See Business supply firms Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 44, 79n, 84, 86, 101, 104-105, 338 IT labor market survey data from, 140-146, 301 job projections from, 110, 120-122 Bureau of National Affairs, 96n Business See IT sector;. U.S. IT firms Business models, for third-party use of nonimmigrant foreign labor , 166-167 Business supply firms (BSFs), model for third-party use of nonimmigrant foreign labor, 167 C C++ programmers, 142, 262, 264 Carnegie Technology Education (CTE), 248 Category 1 IT work, 4-7, 47-48 defining, 48 Category 1 IT workforce, 51-54, 66-68 age distribution of, 141 average annual increase in income for, 71 changes in employment for, 65 compensation in, 68-79 demographics of, 66-68 difficulty understanding composition of non-U.S, citizen portion of, 67 distribution by employment sector, 68 distribution by size of employer, 83 estimates of size of, 63, 331-343 majority holding at least a bachelor's degree, 67-68 numbers growing, 61-65 numbers in industrial employment by size of company, 83 older and younger workers in, 142-146 Category 2 IT work, 4-7 defining, 49 Category 2 IT workforce, 49, 51-54, 85-90 age distribution of, 86, 141 annual changes in mean wages for, 90 characteristics of, 85-90 educational background of, 85-86 growth in mean wages, 90 percentage of females, 90 percentage of foreign-born, 87 percentage of whites, 87, 90
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy rapidly growing occupational groups within, 85 Central Intelligence Agency, 159 Certification industrial, 11, 251-253 vendor, 16 Change accelerating pace of technological, 24-25 broad-scale social, 37 incremental vs. paradigmatic, 259 in employment for Category 1 computer occupations, 65 in employment for selected science and technology occupations, 65 in mean wages for selected Category 2 occupations, annual, 90 in median annual salary for World Wide Web/Internet developers by region, 77 in median salaries for selected information technology occupations, annual, 75 Characteristics of H-1B visa holders in the U.S., 164 Characteristics of the Category 1 IT workforce, 51-54, 61-65, 66-68, 79-84 Characteristics of the Category 2 IT workforce, 85-90 rapidly growing occupational groups, 85 Characteristics of the IT workforce, 60-90 educational background, 79-82 in the hardware subsector within information technology, 84-87 size of, 60-61 Characterizing the workforce problem, 92-132 context, 92 inference of a worker shortage, 97-108 perspective on the federal government and workforce issues in IT, 113-119 projections for the future, 119-131 reports of difficulty in hiring, 92-97 segmentation of demand for IT workers, 110-112 view of the IT labor market, 109 Chief Information Officers (CIO) Council, 18, 116-118, 310-311 Clearing of the IT labor markets, factors impeding, 108 COBOL programmers, 94, 142 COCOMO model, for productivity, 59 Cognitive theory, 57, 270 Collaboration, remote, 184 Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development, recommendations from the report of, 216-218 Communications networks, 26-27, 53 jobs opening in, 110, 120 Community college level formal education at, 11, 245-251 programs in biotechnology, 326 Compensation issues. See also Salaries; Wages in the Category 1 IT workforce, 68-79 in inferring a worker shortage, 102-107 ranking of by workers, 4 Competition for foreign workers, 178-179 in the IT sector, 29 with the private sector for the federal government IT workforce, 113-114 Computer Industry Salary Survey, 72 Computer programmers annual increases in mean income for, 76 number of hours worked per week, 190 Computer Science Accreditation Board (CSAB), 232 Computer science education, 10-11, 220-253; see also Formal IT education baccalaureate level, 229-233 community college level, 247-249 Computer systems analysts and scientists annual increases in mean income for, 76 number of hours worked per week, 190 percent who worked more than 40 hours per week by size of firm, 192 Computer Technology Industry Association (CompTIA), 251 Contract teaching faculty. See also Project-based employment making greater use of, 236, 294 Council on Competitiveness, 286n CPS. See Current Population Survey CSAB. See Computer Science Accreditation Board
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy Current Population Survey (CPS), 6, 40, 61-66, 70, 74, 79, 85, 103, 189, 191, 332-333, 335-337 estimate of employment and unemployment in computer and computer-related occupations, 300, 336, 338, 341, 343 Cyber security needs, 118 D Data mining, 320 Data on displaced workers, 145, 146 Data on IT employment from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 140-146 collecting better, 17, 300-301 from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 139-140 need for better, xvi, 7, 278-279 DataMasters, 72-74 Degrees granted in computer science and computer engineering, 81 held by U.S.-born workers, 67n professionals with advanced, among permanent residents in foreign worker programs, 158 Demographics of the Category 1 IT workforce, 66-68 Department of Commerce, 29, 35, 68, 311, 336, 341 Department of Defense (DOD), 113-114, 116-117, 308-309 Department of Energy (DOE), 117 Department of Labor (DOL), 158-159, 165, 170-171, 173-174, 208, 267, 300, 305-306 Department of the Treasury, 113-114, 118 Dictionary of Occupational Titles , 208 “Digital convergence,” 27 “Digital divide,” 215 Digital technologies, 23 Disequilibrium See Market disequilibrium models. Disincentives, for employer-provided formal training, 255-257 Displaced workers, 145-146 Displacement rates, 142n Distance learning, 253-254 E E-commerce, 36-37, 94 Educational background, 10-11, 297-298. See also Computer science education; Formal IT education; IT education of the Category 1 IT workforce, 79-82 of the Category 2 IT workforce, 85-86 of U.S. K-12 students, 222-223 Educational institutions. See also Black colleges and universities; Computer science education; Degrees; Formal IT education; Training IT workers alignment of educational programs in IT with employer needs, 16, 292-294 faculty recruitment pools, 294-295 formal IT education for students who concentrate in non-IT-related disciplines, 16, 295-296 funding formulas for state-supported, 301 IT fluency in K-12 and in colleges, 292 secondary mathematics education, 291-292 training capacity of, 108 EEOC. See Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Efficient use of IT workers, improving, 188-201 improved recruitment and retention, 194-199 increased use of overtime, 189-194 making clearer distinctions between essential and optional attributes , 199-201 Electrical and electronic technicians, numbers growing, 85 Empirical evidence on the labor market experiences of older and younger IT workers, 139-147 AARP audit study, 146-147 data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 139-140 labor market survey data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 140-146 Employees See Displaced workers;. Female workers; Foreign workers; IT workers; IT workforce; Male workers; Older workers; Skilled workers; Younger workers
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy Employer needs, better aligning educational programs in IT with, 292-294 Employer-provided formal training, disincentives for, 255-257 Employers of IT workers, 199-201 avoiding discriminatory behavior, 288 barriers to providing enough training, 297-298 desire to minimize labor costs, 104 direct grants to, for training, 298-299 distribution of Category 1 IT workers, by size of, 83 perspective on the H-1B visa program, 172 recruiting practices, 287 relationships with universities and other sources of talent, 287 slow response time by, 108 use of structured assessment methods, 287-288 worker quality of life, 288-289 Employment See IT work;. IT workers; Jobs in the IT sector; Project-based employment; Unemployment End-user programming, 127 Enterprise Resource Programs (ERPs), 110 Enterprise-wide software systems, 127 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) complaints filed, 139 data on possible age-related discrimination against older IT workers , 139-140 EEO offices, 147n judgments on cases alleging age-related discrimination, 140 Equilibrium. See also Market disequilibrium models time to reach, in inferring a worker shortage, 107-108 ERPs. See Enterprise Resource Programs Estimating the Category 1 IT workforce, 331-339 demanding accuracy in, 130 employed and unemployed workers in computer and computer-related occupations, 338 employment in computer and computer-related occupations, 341 the larger IT workforce, 339-343 the population of electrical, electronic, and computer engineers in government data sets, 337 the size of the IT workforce, 331-343 Existing IT workforce attracting and using IT workers more efficiently, 188-201 engaging, 9-10 expanding the pool of immediately available workers, 201-216 making more effective use of, 188-219 Experience impact on productivity, 59 role as a hiring filter, 203 role in IT work, 56-60 F Faculty recruitment pools complements to regular tenure-track faculty, 236 expanding, 16, 294-295 upgrading skills of existing faculty, 294-295 use of adjunct faculty drawn from industry, 294 use of faculty in other departments to assume some of the teaching load, 295 Fair Labor Standards Act, 193n FASB. See Financial Accounting Standards Board Federal Cyber Corps, 18, 116, 118 Federal government IT workforce issues, 113-119 competition with the private sector, 113-114 concerns expressed by government contractors, 118-119 coping with tightness, 18, 116-117 flexibility for contractors, 310 incentives, 114-116 recruitment and retention issues, 116 remuneration and recruiting methods, 308-309 resources for training, 309 security, 117-118 working conditions, 309 Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), 106
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy Flexible working conditions, 116 Foreign facilities, investment in by the IT industry, 181 Foreign students' (“F”) visas, 162, 241 Foreign-worker programs “Extraordinary ability” workers, priority granted to, 157-158 H-1B visa program, 171-177 in the United States, 157-170 issues regarding, 170-178 permanent residence program, 170-171 permanent residents in, 157-160 temporary nonimmigrant workers in, 160-170 Foreign workers in the biotechnology workforce, 326 Foreign workers in the IT workforce, 8-9, 152-187 availability to U.S. firms, 177-184 Category 2 IT workforce percentage, 87 cost savings using, 186 impact on the U.S. economy and workforce, 152-155 incentives for, 195n interaction with locating work offshore, 185 in the United States, 156-177 numbers overall, 156-157 Formal IT education, 10-11, 220-254 and type of IT work, 54-55 distance learning, 253-254 for students who concentrate in non-IT-related disciplines, 295-296 higher education, 228-251 industry certification, 251-253 secondary education, 221-228 Forsythe list, 235n, 237n FORTRAN programmers, 142 Future projections for the IT workforce, 23-24, 119-131 project-based employment, 123-126 prospects for improvements in productivity, 126-131 quantitative outlook, 120-122 relevant time horizons, 119-120 skills for the future, 122-123 G Gates Foundation, 235n Gender factors See Female workers;. Male workers Genentech, 317 General Agreement on Trade in Services, 161n Geographical issues in the biotechnology workforce, 327 in the IT workforce, 111 Government contractors. See also Project-based employment concerns expressed by, 118-119 effective use of, 18, 310 Grants, direct, to employers for training, 298-299 Green-card process, 18, 158-160 research needed into streamlining, 303-307 Greenspan, Alan, 40, 155n Groups See Occupational groups;. Underrepresented groups Growth in mean wages for the Category 2 IT workforce, 90 in the biotechnology workforce, 324 in the Category 1 IT workforce, 61-65 in total compensation for IT workers, 106 H H-1B visa holders characteristics of U.S., 164 numbers of temporary nonimmigrant workers in foreign worker programs , 161-168 plausible scenario for dilemma of, 174 H-1B visa program, 17-18, 171-177. See also Green-card process employer perspective on, 172 investigations of alleged violations of, 175-176n worker perspective on, 172-173, 175 H-1B visas making more “portable,” 18, 304 numbers granted to IT workers, 164n pros and cons of changes to levels of, 8-9, 178
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy requirements for, 168-169 Hardware subsector, within information technology, 25, 84-87 HBCUs. See Historically black colleges and universities High-technology sector economics of, 32, 35-38 rise of, 32-35 training opportunities in, 260-261 Higher education in IT baccalaureate level, 228-240 community college level, 245-251 postbaccalaureate level, 240-245 Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), 238-239 Hours worked per week by computer programmers, 190 by computer systems analysts and scientists, 190 Human resources policies, improving internal, 198-199 I ICCP. See Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals Immediately available workers, expanding the pool of, 201-216 Immigrants. See also Foreign workers in the IT workforce illustrative contributions to the U.S. economy, 154 Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 159-160, 165, 169, 300 Incentives for employers to increase training, 17, 297-299 direct grants to employers for training, 298-299 and the federal government IT workforce, 114-116 levy/grant or mandatory training programs, 298-299 subsidized loans, 298 tax credits, 298 Incentives for IT workers, nonmonetary, 115-116 Incremental change, vs. paradigmatic, 259 Incumbent workers, 99 India, IT education policy in, 242 Industrial sector. See also High-technology sector; IT sector making greater use of adjunct faculty drawn from, 294 vast predominance of the Category 1 IT workforce in, 68 Industry certification, 251-253 Industry-wide software systems, 127 Information technology See IT. Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), 335-336, 339, 342-343 Infrastructure, for training, 258-260 INS. See Immigration and Naturalization Service Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP), 251-252 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society , 232, 311 Integration of work and learning, 12, 268-270 of work organization, assessment, and software engineering, 302-303 Intellectual abilities, needed for IT work, 55-56 Interactions, between Category 1 and Category 2 IT work, 49-51 Internal Revenue Service, 114 International Webmasters' Association, 251 Internet, jobs advertised on, 93 Internships, 16 Interviews structured, 207 unstructured, 204 Investment abroad by the IT industry, 181-183 employment in U.S. parent companies and their affiliates abroad, 182-183 foreign facilities, 181 strategic alliances, 181-182 IT careers annual changes in median salaries for selected, 75 fluidity of, 221 joint action needed to promote awareness of and interest in, 311 targeting underrepresented groups for, 212-216 young people's views of education and, 226-228
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy IT education, 79-82. See also Computer science education; Formal IT education policy in India, 242 IT firms See U.S. IT firms. IT fluency, promoting in K-12 and in colleges to a greater degree , 15-16, 292 IT labor market, 109, 140-146. See also IT workforce AARP audit study on, 146-147 applicants “testing,” data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 139-140 data on job loss, Category 1 IT workers, 142 data on job replacement, Category 1 IT workers, 143-146 data on the relative youthfulness of Category 1 IT workforce, 141-142 elasticity of demand within, 103n empirical evidence on, 139-147 factors impeding the clearing of, 108 integrating work and learning, 12, 268-270 overall, in inferring a worker shortage, 99 role of formal education, 10-11 survey data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 140-146 training IT workers, 254-267 IT sector, 23-132 as a policy driver, 38-40 attention captured by, 28-40 character of, 23-43 characterizing the workforce problem within, 92-132 competition in, 29 definitions, 25-26 flourishing of, 29-32 future of, 23-24 global nature of, 39, 152 hardware subsector within, 25, 84-87 influence on the IT workforce, 24-28 investment abroad by, 181-183 jobs in, 194-198 role in present assessment of IT workforce issues, 40-42 understanding the IT workforce, 44-91 unemployment in, 93 IT skills access in the secondary classroom, 225-226 combining with knowledge of a specific business, 122-123 concerns of government contractors, 118 future projections, 122-123 standards from the Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, 248-249 IT users, 45n IT work, 90-91 Category 1 vs. Category 2 IT workers, 51-54 Category 1 work, 47-48 Category 2 work, 49 core knowledge and abilities needed for, 55-56 formal education, by type of, 54-55 fulfillment that comes from responsible positions serving the nation , 308 in Category 1 IT occupations by occupational category, 64 integrating with learning, 12, 268-270 interaction between Category 1 and Category 2 work, 49-51 locating abroad, 179-184 nature of, 4, 47-54 organizing for productivity, 291 role of experience and situated learning and knowledge in, 56-60 IT workers attracting and using more efficiently, 188-201 average change in median annual salary for, by region, 73 defining, 44-47 defining shortage of, 109 displaced, 145-146 educational background of, 79-82 expanding the pool of immediately available, 201-216 federal government in competition with private sector for, 113-114 future trends in assessment of, 211-212 growth in total compensation for, 106 improving quality of life for, 288-289 improving working conditions for, 309 intellectual and knowledge requirements for, 54-60 numbers of H-1B visas granted to, 164n
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy reducing relative need for, 126-131 sample titles of, 46 slow response time by, 108 training, 254-267 IT workforce. See also Category 1 IT workforce; Category 2 IT workforce; Existing IT workforce characteristics of, 60-90 future projections for, 119-131 geographical issues in, 111 influence of entire IT sector on, 24-28 regional supply issues in, 112 size and structure of the, 6-7, 60-61, 344 size of hardware subsector, 86-87 understanding, 44-91 IT workforce problem, 2, 4-6, 92-132 compensation, 102-107 for the federal government IT workforce, 113-119 inference of worker shortages, 97-108 IT labor market, 109 overall labor market, 99 projections for the future, 119-131 relieving, 135-272 reports of difficulty in hiring, 92-97 role of IT sector in current assessment of, 40-42 segmentation of demand for IT workers, 110-112 size of the applicant pool, 99-102 skills shortages vs. worker shortages, 102 time to reach equilibrium, 107-108 ITAA. See Information Technology Association of America J Java programmers, 94, 253, 262, 264 Jobs in the IT sector. See also Wages advertised on the Internet, 93 effectiveness of assessment techniques for analyzing, 205-209 improving attractiveness of, 15, 194-196 increasing awareness of among potential workers, 196-198 sample titles, 46, 88 Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network, 96, 266 K Knowledge needed for IT work, 56-60. See also Attributes of IT workers; Being Fluent with Information Technology; Educational background enduring vs. perishable, 56-57, 293 “hard” vs. “soft,” 56-57, 293 intellectual abilities, 55-56 social abilities, 56 understanding of basic concepts supporting IT, 56 L Labor condition application (LCA), 165, 170, 173 Labor market See IT labor market. LCA. See Labor condition application Learning See Computer science education;. Degrees; Formal IT education; Organizational learning; Situated learning; Training IT workers Legal dimensions of age discrimination, 136-138 definition of age discrimination, 136 legal theories for showing age discrimination, 137-138 Supreme Court rulings on, 138-138 Legal dimensions of assessment, 209-211 Levy/grant training programs, 298-299 Lifelong learning, need for, 254-255 Loans for training programs, subsidized, 298 M Male workers, Category 1 IT workforce predominance of, 66 Management for greater productivity, 127-130 for software engineering, 130 micromanagement, 130 of organizational learning, 49n Mandatory training programs, 298-299 Market disequilibrium models, of an occupational labor shortage, 98 Marketplace See IT labor market.
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy Massachusetts Software Council (MSC), 266-267 Meeting the Federal IT Workforce Challenge , 18 Minority groups See Underrepresented groups. Moore's law, 25 MSC. See Massachusetts Software Council Multiple employment applications, 100-101 N NACE. See National Association of Colleges and Employers NAEP. See National Assessment of Educational Progress NAFTA. See Trade-NAFTA (“TN”) visas NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASSCOM. See National Association of Software and Service Companies National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 115, 117-118 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 222-223 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), 70, 114 National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM), 179 National Center on Employee Ownership (NCEO), 74 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 291 National Employer Survey, 260 National Science Foundation (NSF), 3, 62, 82, 241, 303n, 326-327 NCEO. See National Center on Employee Ownership “New economy,” 35 Non-H-1B nonimmigrant visa categories, 162-163 “E” treaty traders and investors, 162 “F” foreign students, 162 “J” exchange visitors and spouses, 162-163 “L” intracompany transferees, 163 “TN” trade-NAFTA visas, 163 Non-U.S. citizens, in the Category 1 IT workforce, 67 Nonimmigrant foreign workers See Temporary nonimmigrant workers in foreign worker programs. Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies (NWCET), 247-248 IT skills standards from, 85, 88-89, 208, 212, 224, 248, 343-344 NSF. See National Science Foundation NWCET. See Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies O Object-oriented languages, 259 Occupational Employment Survey (OES), 64, 70, 72, 300, 332-333, 336-337, 340 Occupational groups. See also Science and technology occupations and related skill standards, 88-89 rapidly growing in the Category 2 IT workforce, 85 OES. See Occupational Employment Survey Office of Personnel Management (OPM), 113, 115-118, 311 Older workers and possible age-related discrimination, 135-151 empirical evidence on the labor market experiences of older and younger IT workers, 139-147 legal dimensions of age discrimination, 136-138 older workers equally likely to find new jobs as younger, 143-146 older workers more likely than younger to lose their jobs, 142 O*NET , 208 OPM. See Office of Personnel Management Organizational learning, management of, 49n Outsourcing, 32, 129 Overtime for IT workers exemption from restrictions on, 193n increasing use of, 9, 189-194
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy P Permanent labor certification (PLC) See Green-card process. Permanent residence program, 170-171 Permanent residents in foreign worker programs, 157-160 numbers, 157-158 obtaining a green card, 158-160 priority workers, 157-158 skilled workers, professionals, and other workers, 158 Personnel, reducing relative needs for, 126-131 Personnel supply firms (PSFs), model for third-party use of nonimmigrant foreign labor, 166-167 PITAC. See President's Information Technology Advisory Committee Policy driver, the IT sector as, 38-40 Postbaccalaureate level, formal education at, 11, 240-245 Potential workers, increasing awareness of jobs among, 196-198 President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC), 286n Priority workers, among permanent residents in foreign worker programs, 157-158 Private sector IT workforce, federal government in competition with, 113-114 Problem solving for IT workforce issues, 135-272 foreign workers in the IT workforce, 152-187 increasing the supply of qualified labor by training and education, 220-272 making more effective use of the existing IT workforce, 188-219 older IT workers and possible age-related discrimination, 135-151 Productivity of the IT workforce COCOMO model for, 59 defining, 126n illustrative tools for, 127 impact of experience on, 59 increasing, 126-131 likely impact of improvements in, 129, 131 management and organization, 127-130 organizing work for, 291 research needed into, 302 tools, 126-127 variations among software developers, 52 Professional development, release time for, 16 Professional societies and groups, using to support educational efforts, 16, 296 Professional specialty workers, 66n age distribution of, 141 Project-based employment forms taken by, 123-124 future projections for, 123-126 Proprietary information issues, 125 PSFs. See Personnel supply firms Q Quality of life, improving for IT workers, 15, 288-289 Quantitative outlook for the IT workforce, future projections, 120-122 Quotas, per-country, 160 R Recruitment and retention of IT workers, 194-199 being more flexible in, 308-309 changing practices in, 287 for the federal government IT workforce, 116 improving internal human resources policies, 198-199 improving job attractiveness, 194-196 increasing awareness of jobs among potential workers, 196-198 Reduction-in-force (RIF) notices, impact of, 114-115 Regional supply issues, in the IT workforce, 112 Regional training consortia, supporting, 299-300 Regulation, of the biotechnology industry, 13 Relief, for the IT workforce problem, 135-272 Remote collaboration, 184 Remuneration, federal government increasing flexibility in, 18, 308-309
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy Research needed, 17, 302-303 in software engineering, 302 into assessment tools for IT jobs, 302 into better integration of work organization, assessment, and software engineering, 302-303 into productivity, 302 into situated learning, 302 into streamlining the green-card process, 303-307 into work organization, 302 Retention See Recruitment and retention of IT workers. RIF notices See Reduction-in-force notices. Risk management, 130 S Salaries, 77-79 Salary increases in mean annual salary for science and technology occupations, 71, 73 in mean income for computer programmers, annual, 76 in mean income for computer systems analysts and scientists, annual , 69n, 76 SC/CHiPS Professional & Managerial (P&M) Total Compensation Survey, 105n Science and engineering graduates, percentage, by age group, employed in IT and non-IT occupations, 67 Science and technology occupations changes in employment for selected , 65 Secondary education, 10, 221-228 access to IT in the classroom, 225-226 improving, 15, 102n state of, 223-225 young people's views of education and IT careers, 226-228 Secondary mathematics education, improving, 291-292 Sectors See High-technology sector;. Industrial sector; IT sector Security issues, in the federal government IT workforce, 117-118 Self-study programs, 16 SESTAT data system, 62, 64, 66, 84, 86, 327, 336 Shared training, approaches to, 266-267 Shortage of IT workers. See also IT workforce problem; Tightness in the IT labor market defining, 109 Situated learning research needed into, 302 role in IT work, 56-60 Skilled workers. See also IT skills among permanent residents in foreign worker programs, 158 needed for the future, 122-123 Skills of existing faculty, upgrading, 294-295 Skills shortages. See also “Upskilling” programs vs. worker shortages, in inferring a worker shortage, 102 Social abilities, needed for IT work, 56 Social change, broad-scale, 37 Social demand model, of an occupational labor shortage, 97-98 Software engineering, 25-26 elements of managing, 130 evaluating, 52 international aspect of, 152-153 research needed in, 302 Software reuse, 127 Software systems, industry and enterprise-wide, 127 Standish Group, 128 STAR program, 116 State-supported educational institutions, changing funding formulas for, 301 Strategic alliances, investment in by the IT industry, 181-182 Strategic Tactical Advocates for Results See STAR program. Strategies for increasing the supply of qualified labor, 220-272 integrating work and learning, 268-270 role of formal education, 220-254 training IT workers, 254-267 Structured assessment methods, 10, 206-207 making more use of, 287-288 validated, 15 Structured interviews, 207 Students. See Educational institutions; Foreign students' (“F”) visas
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy Supreme Court, rulings on age discrimination, 137-138 Survey data, on the IT labor market, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 140-146 T Taulbee survey, 80-82, 244 Tax credits for training programs, 298 Technical writers, numbers rapidly growing, 85 Tek.Xam assessment, 211 Temporary nonimmigrant workers in foreign worker programs, 160-170. See also H-1B visas numbers of H-1B visas and workers, 161-168 obtaining an H-1B visa, 165-170 Tenure-track faculty, complements to regular, 236 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 222-223 Tightness in the IT labor market, 109 coping with, 5, 13-14, 17 federal government coping with, 116-117 impact of age-related discrimination on, 150 worldwide, 100 Titles of IT workers, sample, 46, 88 Tools for greater productivity, 126-127 Training IT workers, 11-12, 15, 254-267 and firm size, 262-264 approaches to shared training, 266-267 costs of, 119 disincentives for employer-provided formal training, 255-257 , 297-298 extent of, 261-262 factors affecting, 257-258 historical experiences in, 264-265 in ASTD firms, 265 incentives for employers to increase, 297-299 making more resources available for, 18, 309 need for lifelong learning, 254-255 opportunities in the economy and in high technology, 260-261 promoting, 289-291 release time for, 16 support and infrastructure for, 258-260 supporting regional consortia for, 299-300 time needed for, 108 training realities, 261-264 Tuition reimbursement, 116 Turnover rates, 95 U Underrepresented groups and concerns of government contractors, 118-119 joint action needed to expand opportunities for, 15, 312-313 targeting for IT careers, 16, 212-216 Unemployment, in the IT sector, 93 Unintended bias, accounting for, 204-205 Universities See Educational institutions. “Upskilling” programs, 221 U.S.-born workers in the Category 1 IT workforce, 66-67 degrees held by, 67n U.S. Census Bureau, 260, 335 U.S. economy, 2-3, 35-38, 152-155, 260-261, 297 U.S. IT firms, 30-31 availability of foreign IT workers to, 177-184 employment in affiliates abroad, 182-183 number employed in by IT industry sector, including foreign affiliates, 182-183 size of, and training, 262-264 U.S. workforce, impact of foreign workers on, 152-155 V Vacancy, defining, 93-96 Visa categories. See also Green-card process “E” treaty traders and investors, 162 “F” foreign students, 162, 241 “H-1B” visas, 161-177 “J” exchange visitors and spouses, 162-163 “L” intracompany transferees, 163, 185 “TN” trade-NAFTA visas, 163
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Building a Workforce for the Information Economy W Wages. See also Remuneration; Salaries being more flexible in, 308-309 growth in mean for Category 2 IT workforce, 90 growth in total compensation for IT workers, 106 in beginning salaries for bachelor's degree recipients, annual, 72 in inferring a worker shortage, 102-107 in the Category 1 IT workforce, 68-79 Women See Female workers;. Underrepresented groups Word-of-mouth hiring, 197-198 Work See Category 1 IT work;. Category 2 IT work; IT work; Jobs Workers. See also Displaced workers; Female workers; Foreign workers; IT workers; Male workers; Older workers; Skilled workers; Younger workers Worker shortages. See also IT workforce problem inference of, 97-108 perspective on the H-1B visa program, 172-173, 175 vs. skills shortages, 102 Workforce See Biotechnology workforce;. IT workforce; U.S. workforce Working conditions flexible, 116 improving for IT workers, 309 Work organization, research needed into, 302 Y Younger workers equally likely to find new jobs as older, 143-146 relative predominance in the Category 1 IT workforce, 66, 141-142 Young people, views of education and IT careers, 226-228
Representative terms from entire chapter: