Attracting IT workers, 188-201

improved recruitment and retention, 194-199

increased use of overtime, 189-194

Attributes of IT workers, essential versus optional, 199-201

Availability of foreign IT workers to U.S. firms, 177-184

competition for foreign workers, 178-179

locating IT work abroad, 179-184

B

Baccalaureate level, formal education at, 10-11, 228-240

Bachelor's degrees

awarded in computer science, xi, 82

Category 1 IT workforce majority holding, 67-68

two-year turnover rates for IT and non-IT workers with, 95

Barriers to employers providing enough training, 297-298

Basic concepts supporting IT, understanding of needed for IT work, 56

Being Fluent with Information Technology , 292

Biotechnology, 317-330

and bioinformatics, 319-321, 328

global nature of sector, 321

impact on the economy, 321-324

number of companies and their valuation, 322-323

relationship to the pharmaceutical industry, 322-323

short history of, 317-318

similarities to and differences from IT industries, 329-330

Biotechnology Industry Organization, 318

Biotechnology workforce, 324-329

foreign worker participation in, 327

growth in, 324

trends in, 327-329

Black colleges and universities differences in the number of science, engineering, and IT-related graduates, from majority institutions , 238-239

lessons from, in promoting IT-related study, 238-239

BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics

Bridging the Gap , 231n, 342

BSFs. See Business supply firms

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 44, 79n, 84, 86, 101, 104-105, 338

IT labor market survey data from, 140-146, 301

job projections from, 110, 120-122

Bureau of National Affairs, 96n

Business See IT sector;.

U.S. IT firms

Business models, for third-party use of nonimmigrant foreign labor , 166-167

Business supply firms (BSFs), model for third-party use of nonimmigrant foreign labor, 167

C

C++ programmers, 142, 262, 264

Carnegie Technology Education (CTE), 248

Category 1 IT work, 4-7, 47-48

defining, 48

Category 1 IT workforce, 51-54, 66-68

age distribution of, 141

average annual increase in income for, 71

changes in employment for, 65

compensation in, 68-79

demographics of, 66-68

difficulty understanding composition of non-U.S, citizen portion of, 67

distribution by employment sector, 68

distribution by size of employer, 83

estimates of size of, 63, 331-343

majority holding at least a bachelor's degree, 67-68

numbers growing, 61-65

numbers in industrial employment by size of company, 83

older and younger workers in, 142-146

Category 2 IT work, 4-7

defining, 49

Category 2 IT workforce, 49, 51-54, 85-90

age distribution of, 86, 141

annual changes in mean wages for, 90

characteristics of, 85-90

educational background of, 85-86

growth in mean wages, 90

percentage of females, 90

percentage of foreign-born, 87

percentage of whites, 87, 90



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