acquired in the context of formal education) and situated knowledge that is specific to a work or problem situation.

Because most jobs require a mix of Category 1 work and Category 2 work, the boundaries between Category 1 and Category 2 workers is fluid. That said, Category 1 work tends to require more years of formal exposure to IT-related disciplines than does Category 2 work. This difference suggests that a significant increase in the supply of Category 1 workers is likely to take at least several years (i.e., the time needed for large numbers of these individuals to matriculate), while training efforts for Category 2 workers can—in principle—bear fruit in a matter of months.

The size of the IT workforce is difficult to estimate. However, the committee estimates that the overall size of the IT workforce is at least 5.0 million, with approximately 2.5 million Category 1 workers and a number of Category 2 workers that is at least as large. The IT workforce has grown rapidly in the last 8 years, with the “core ” Category 1 workforce nearly doubling. Demographically, the Category 1 workforce is predominantly male, white, and younger than the workforce in general. And theCategory 1 workforce is highly educated, with most Category 1 workers having at least a bachelor's degree (though frequently not in an IT-related discipline). Real wages have grown in Category 1 occupations overall at a rate of about 3.8 to 4.5 percent annually since 1996, although this figure masks much more substantial growth in certain subspecialties and also does not include the impact of stock options and equity stakes on total compensation.

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