• At the outset, advisers need to make clear their expectations of the postdoc and learn about the postdoc's own expectations.

  • In return for the postdoc's contributions, the adviser should both provide scientific and technical training and help the postdoc acquire other necessary “career” skills, such as those that contribute to effective communication, publication, grant writting, and management.

  • Frequent communication between postdoc and adviser helps prevent problems from growing into grievances.

  • Attending professional meetings is one of the most important ways a postdoc can enhance professional visibility, dain confidence, and build a network of contacts.

  • Postdocs need regular feedback on the quality and direction of their work, including written evaluations at least annually.

  • The adviser should take the lead early and often in discussing ethical standards, including issue of authorship, credit, conflicts of interest, and other dilemmas.

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