school districts will need to work with their partners to find ways to provide the time and resources required. Providing this time implies that (1) teachers will have fewer contact hours with students each day or week, (2) they will be engaged in (and fully compensated for) their work for a longer period of time each academic year (e.g., by working an extra month during the summers on professional and curriculum development), or (3) some combination of these options. The critical components of a teaching position that could be supported in these ways include professional reflection, continual intellectual engagement, and advancement in the profession (e.g., Figure 6-4), working with colleagues to improve specific curricula, and working with each other and with less senior teachers to improve teaching and learning for all of the schools involved with the partnership (e.g., Ma, 1999). Providing opportunities and the financial support that is required for teachers to become more fully engaged in their profession throughout the academic year is common practice in other nations such as Japan (Stigler and Hiebert, 1997; NRC, 1999c).

6. Sharing of resources and expertise. With few exceptions, colleges and universities in a given geographical area are far more likely than local school districts to have sophisticated laboratory space and equipment, computing facilities, and access to other resources such as library holdings. As partnerships for teacher education in science and mathematics develop and prioritize their issues, sharing of knowledge and resources could become a primary focus. In terms of technology and technology applications knowledge, for example, recent reports (Becker and Anderson, 1998; Milken Family Foundation, 1999; CEO Forum, 1999, 2000; Brandt, 2000) have decried the lack of preparation of future teachers in the appropriate use of information technology, as well as the continued need for practicing teachers to work to incorporate general purpose technology tools into core instructional activities. Because of their familiarity and comfort with using sophisticated information technology tools and software, scientists and mathematicians from the partnership and their expertise could be engaged to address these issues more fully. In turn, these scientists and mathematicians also could apply their experiences from such efforts to address appropriate applications of information technology in undergraduate classrooms and laboratories for a wider spectrum of students.

In terms of equipment resources, members in a partnership might decide that certain kinds of expensive instru-



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