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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Appendix A Standards for Teacher Development and Professional Conduct From the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996a; excerpted from pages 55-73) PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT STANDARD A: Professional development for teachers of science requires learning essential science content through the perspectives and methods of inquiry. Science learning experiences for teachers must Involve teachers in actively investigating phenomena that can be studied scientifically, interpreting results, and making sense of findings consistent with currently accepted scientific understanding. Address issues, events, problems, or topics significant in science and of interest to participants. Introduce teachers to scientific literature, media, and technological resources that expand their science knowledge and their ability to access further knowledge. Build on the teacher’s current science understanding, ability, and attitudes. Incorporate ongoing reflection on the process and outcomes of understanding science through inquiry. Encourage and support teachers in efforts to collaborate. STANDARD B: Professional development for teachers of science requires integrating knowledge of science, learning, pedagogy, and students; it also requires applying that knowledge to science teaching. Learning experiences for teachers of science must
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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Connect and integrate all pertinent aspects of science and science education. Occur in a variety of places where effective science teaching can be illustrated and modeled, permitting teachers to struggle with real situations and expand their knowledge and skills in appropriate contexts. Address teachers’ needs as learners and build on their current knowledge of science content, teaching, and learning. Use inquiry, reflection, interpretation of research, modeling, and guided practice to build understanding and skill in science teaching. STANDARD C: Professional development for teachers of science requires building understanding and ability for lifelong learning. Professional development activities must Provide regular, frequent opportunities for individual and collegial examination and reflection on classroom and institutional practice. Provide opportunities for teachers to receive feedback about their teaching and to understand, analyze, and apply that feedback to improve their practice. Provide opportunities for teachers to learn and use various tools and techniques for self-reflection and collegial reflection, such as peer coaching, portfolios, and journals. Support the sharing of teacher expertise by preparing and using mentors, teacher advisers, coaches, lead teachers, and resource teachers to provide professional development opportunities. Provide opportunities to know and have access to existing research and experiential knowledge. Provide opportunities to learn and use the skills of research to generate new knowledge about science and the teaching and learning of science. STANDARD D: Professional development programs for teachers of science must be coherent and integrated. Quality preservice and inservice programs are characterized by Clear, shared goals based on a vision of science learning, teaching, and teacher development congruent with the National Science Education Standards. Integration and coordination of the program components so that understanding and ability can be built over time, reinforced continuously, and practiced in a variety of situations. Options that recognize the developmental nature of teacher professional growth and individual and group
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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium interest, as well as the need of teachers who have varying degrees of experience, professional expertise, and proficiency. Collaboration among the people involved in programs, including teachers, teacher educators, teacher unions, scientists, administrators, policy makers, members of professional and scientific organizations, parents, and business people, with clear respect for the perspectives and expertise of each. Recognition of the history, culture, and organization of the school environment. Continuous program assessment that captures the perspectives of all those involved, uses a variety of strategies, focuses on the process and effects of the program, and feeds directly into program improvement and evaluation. From the NCTM Standards for the Professional Development of Teachers of Mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991, excerpted from pages 127-173) Standard 1. Experiencing Good Mathematics Teaching Mathematics and mathematics education instructors in preservice and continuing education programs should model good mathematics teaching by— Posing worthwhile mathematical tasks; Engaging teachers in mathematical discourse; Enhancing mathematical discourse through the use of a variety of tools, including calculators, computers, and physical and pictorial models; Creating learning environments that support and encourage mathematical reasoning and teachers’ dispositions and abilities to do mathematics; Expecting and encouraging teachers to take intellectual risks in doing mathematics and to work independently and collaboratively; Representing mathematics as an ongoing human activity Affirming and supporting full participation and continued study of mathematics by all students. Standard 2. Knowing Mathematics and School Mathematics The education of teachers of mathematics should develop their knowledge of the content and discourse of mathematics, including— Mathematical concepts and procedures and the connections among them; Multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures; Ways to reason mathematically, solve
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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium problems, and communicate mathematics effectively at different levels of formality; And, in addition develop their perspectives on— The nature of mathematics, the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics, and the role of mathematics in culture and society; The changes in the nature of mathematics and the way we teach, learn, and do mathematics resulting from the availability of technology; School mathematics within the discipline of mathematics; The changing nature of school mathematics, its relationships to other school subjects, and its applications in society. Standard 3. Knowing Students as Learners of Mathematics The preservice and continuing education of teachers of mathematics should provide multiple perspectives on students as learners of mathematics by developing teachers’ knowledge of— Research on how students learn mathematics; The effects of students’ age, abilities, interests, and experience on learning mathematics; The influences of students’ linguistic, ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic backgrounds and gender on learning mathematics; Ways to affirm and support full participation and continued study of mathematics by all students. Standard 4. Knowing Mathematical Pedagogy The preservice and continuing education of teachers of mathematics should develop teachers’ knowledge of and ability to use and evaluate— Instructional materials and resources, including technology; Ways to represent mathematics concepts and procedures; Instructional strategies and classroom organizational models; Ways to promote discourse and foster a sense of mathematical community; Means for assessing student understanding of mathematics. Standard 5. Developing as a Teacher of Mathematics The preservice and continuing education of teachers of mathematics should provide them with opportunities to— Examine and revise their assumptions about the nature of mathematics, how it should be taught, and how students learn mathematics;
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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Observe and analyze a range of approaches to mathematics teaching and learning, focusing on the tasks, discourse, environment, and assessment; Work with a diverse range of students individually, in small groups, and in large class settings with guidance from and in collaboration with mathematics education professionals; Analyze and evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of their teaching; Develop dispositions toward teaching mathematics. Standard 6. The Teacher’s Role in Professional Development Teachers of mathematics should take an active role in their own professional development by accepting responsibility for— Experimenting thoughtfully with alternative approaches and strategies in the classroom; Reflecting on learning and teaching individually and with colleagues; Participating in workshop, courses, and other educational opportunities specific to mathematics; Participating actively in the professional community of mathematics educators; Reading and discussing ideas presented in professional publications; Discussing with colleagues issues in mathematics and mathematics teaching and learning; Participating in proposing, designing, and evaluating programs for professional development specific to mathematics; Participating in school, community, and political efforts to effect positive change in mathematics education. Schools and school districts must support and encourage teachers in accepting these responsibilities.
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