Index

A

Accountability

benchmarks, 31, 17, 31, 32, 66, 119

colleges and universities, 8, 17;

see also Accreditation, institutions

students, 86

teachers, 113, 122-123

Accreditation, institutions, 32, 35, 88, 106, 117, 185

defined, 185

Acoustical Society of America, 129

Administrators and administration, 6-7, 82, 88

attitudes toward profession, 40-41

collaborative partnerships, involvement in, 76, 79, 83, 92(n.1)

institutional integration, 8, 76, 79, 88

out-of-field teachers hired by, 82

Professional Development Schools, 76, 79

salaries, 3

teacher support by, 40, 159-161

Age factors, pedagogical content knowledge defined, 189

see also Grade-level factors;

Life-long learning

Algebra, 50(n2), 151

Alternative teacher education/certification programs, 23, 37-38, 51-52, 61-62, 107

Alverno College, 164-165

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 170

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 17, 32

content preparation, 20

Project 2061, 16-17, 66

American Association of Community Colleges, 93

American Association of Physics Teachers, 129

American Astronomical Society, 129

American College Testing program, 48

American Council on Education, 66, 74-75, 85, 93, 123

American Educational Research Association, 122(n.3)

American Federation of Teachers, 57

American Institute of Physics, 51(n.5), 129

American Physical Society, 129

Analogies, 64, 157, 188

Assessment, see Accountability;

Accreditation, institutions;

Benchmarks;

Evaluation of students;

Evaluation of teachers;

Licensing and certification;

Standards

Association for the Education of Teachers of Science, 5, 66

Association of American Universities, 85, 93, 122(n.4)

Attitudes

of administrators toward profession, 40-41

parental, 39-40

of students, 69, 83, 155-156

about teacher education, 22, 28, 35

of teachers, 11(n.5), 19-20, 40, 67, 69-70, 81, 95-96, 154

about teaching as telling, 23

see also Motivation;

Public opinion



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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Index A Accountability benchmarks, 31, 17, 31, 32, 66, 119 colleges and universities, 8, 17; see also Accreditation, institutions students, 86 teachers, 113, 122-123 Accreditation, institutions, 32, 35, 88, 106, 117, 185 defined, 185 Acoustical Society of America, 129 Administrators and administration, 6-7, 82, 88 attitudes toward profession, 40-41 collaborative partnerships, involvement in, 76, 79, 83, 92(n.1) institutional integration, 8, 76, 79, 88 out-of-field teachers hired by, 82 Professional Development Schools, 76, 79 salaries, 3 teacher support by, 40, 159-161 Age factors, pedagogical content knowledge defined, 189 see also Grade-level factors; Life-long learning Algebra, 50(n2), 151 Alternative teacher education/certification programs, 23, 37-38, 51-52, 61-62, 107 Alverno College, 164-165 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 170 Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 17, 32 content preparation, 20 Project 2061, 16-17, 66 American Association of Community Colleges, 93 American Association of Physics Teachers, 129 American Astronomical Society, 129 American College Testing program, 48 American Council on Education, 66, 74-75, 85, 93, 123 American Educational Research Association, 122(n.3) American Federation of Teachers, 57 American Institute of Physics, 51(n.5), 129 American Physical Society, 129 Analogies, 64, 157, 188 Assessment, see Accountability; Accreditation, institutions; Benchmarks; Evaluation of students; Evaluation of teachers; Licensing and certification; Standards Association for the Education of Teachers of Science, 5, 66 Association of American Universities, 85, 93, 122(n.4) Attitudes of administrators toward profession, 40-41 parental, 39-40 of students, 69, 83, 155-156 about teacher education, 22, 28, 35 of teachers, 11(n.5), 19-20, 40, 67, 69-70, 81, 95-96, 154 about teaching as telling, 23 see also Motivation; Public opinion

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium B Background factors students, 24, 25, 39, 69, 146, 155, 156 teachers, 48, 49, 100, 192 see also Socioeconomic status Beginning teachers, see Induction phase Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment Project, 92(n.1) Benchmarks, 17, 31, 32, 119 Project 2061, 16-17, 66 Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 17, 32 Biology, 61, 148, 149 Boston Plan for Excellence in the Public Schools, 160-161 C California, 63, 72 California Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment System, 159 California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, 92(n.1) California Learning Assessment System, 63 California State University, 175 Career-long professional development, 5, 7, 10, 16, 19, 23-24, 28, 37, 67, 75, 88, 108, 109, 114(n.1), 144 Carolina Teacher Performance Assessment System, 50 Center for Teaching Excellence (University of Kansas), 121(n.2) Cerritos College, 175-176 Certification, see Accreditation, institutions; Licensing and certification China, 62-63 Clark University-Worcester Public Schools, 165-166 Class size, 45, 48, 72 Clinical schools and training, 7, 19, 22, 75, 161, 162, 166 see also Practicum experiences Cognitively Guided Instruction, 64 Collaborations and partnerships, see Partnerships and collaborations Collaboratives for Excellence in Teacher Preparation, 173 Colleges and universities, xiv, 2, 5, 10, 11-12, 41, 42, 45, 74-75, 109, 111-112, 116-128 accountability, 8, 17 accreditation, 32, 35, 88, 106, 117, 185 advisors, 35, 116-117 career advising, 35, 116-117 certification of teachers, 96, 116-117 curriculum development, 78, 95 lower division courses, 95, 120, 121-122 defined, 187-188 partnerships, x, xiv, 8-10, 11, 19, 22, 28, 43, 74, 75, 81, 82-83, 87-108 (passim), 109, 111, 112, 116-117, 118, 119, 123-128, 129, 161, 164-176 beginning teachers, induction assistance, 91, 92(n.1), 96, 107 clinical schools and training, 7, 19, 22, 75, 161, 162, 166 information technology, 98, 103 inservice education, 76, 87, 88, 89, 91, 94, 97, 98-99, 100-103, 107, 126-128, 161 post-graduate programs, 98, 170 preservice education, 88, 92-97 (passim), 107, 164-176 Professional Development Schools (PDS), 5-6, 22, 75-79, 81, 166-167, 169-170 standards, 100-101, 174 pedagogy, 11-12, 23, 118, 119, 175 professors, selection criteria, 23 professors, tenure and promotion, 105, 106 Project 2061, 66 reform movement, general, 17, 19, 20, 22, 85 research by, 12, 43, 111, 121-122 standards, 17, 35-36, 100-101, 174; see also “accreditation” supra see also Community colleges; Post-graduate programs; Preservice education; Professional development; Teacher educators Colorado, 56 Colorado College, 170 Columbia University, 8(n.3) Community colleges, x, xiv, 93, 94, 124, 173-175, 176 recruitment and retention, 93, 173-174, 176 see also Colleges and universities Computer technology, see Information technology; Internet Conceptual understanding, 68 defined, 186 inquiry-based education, 21

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium partnerships, 7, 83 pedagogical content knowledge defined, 189 student misconceptions, 61 teacher educators and education, 32, 60, 68 teachers, general, 59, 60, 61, 62(n.13), 119, 148 teachers, international comparisons, 54 teacher standards, 58 teaching as telling vs, 192 see also Preconceptions Concerns-Based Adoption Model, xvii Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 5, 56 Content knowledge, general, 18, 35, 68-69 alternative teacher education programs, 23, 61-62 career-long education, 10, 67 endorsement of teachers, 186 grade-level factors, ix, 55-56, 60, 80, 118, 119-120 inservice education, 33, 63, 64, 65, 123, 145 international perspectives, 54, 62-63 lacking among teachers, 2, 33 memorization, 26, 61, 119; see also Teaching as telling out-of-field teaching, 50-53, 54, 72, 79, 82, 188 parental attitudes, 39-40 partnerships, 88, 95, 96 pedagogical content knowledge, ix, 11-12, 60, 64, 67, 118 defined, 188-189 preservice education, 49-65 (passim), 79-81, 118, 119-120, 145 problem solving and teacher content knowledge, 60, 62(n.13), 63 reform of content, xiii, xv, 1-2, 17-18, 20 scientists and engineers, 8, 70 standards, 1(n.1), 2, 5, 17-18, 19, 23, 24, 30(n.1), 31, 55-59, 69, 70, 119-120, 143, 144, 145, 148-153 state standards for teacher education, 3, 5, 17-18, 19, 23, 33, 34, 56-57 curriculum frameworks, 17-18, 25-26, 31, 63, 160, 174-175 teacher input into content development, 39, 52, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64 teachers lacking, 31 out-of-field teaching, 50-52, 54, 72, 79, 82, 188 teacher quality and student achievement, 49-65 teaching as telling and, 10, 23, 24, 27, 192 teaching practice, defined, 192 see also Curriculum development Content specialists, 4, 55, 69, 79-80 defined, 186 Chinese vs U.S., 62-63 master teachers, 39, 91, 96, 97, 107, 124, 126, 127, 188; see also Mentoring professional societies role, 80, 118-119 recruitment and retention, 80, 111 Continuing education, see Inservice education Council of Basic Education, 18 Council of Chief State School Officers, see Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium Council of Scientific Society of Presidents, 130 Council of the Great City Colleges, 37(n.4) Council of the Great City Schools, 37(n.4) Credentialing, general, 175 national consensus, 34, 115-116 out-of-field teaching, 50, 188 professors, selection criteria, 23 professors, tenure and promotion, 105, 106 teachers, 18, 37-38, 101 see also Accreditation, institutions; Licensing and certification; “teachers, other” under Standards Cultural factors, 62-63, 146 culture of education, 43, 101-102, 123, 145, 160 partnerships, 43, 101-102 professional training requirements, attitudes toward, 15-16, 22-23 student background, 25, 69 see also Public opinion Current practices, x, xiv, 1-3, 7, 18, 28, 41, 46 partnerships vs, xv, 76, 108 practicum experiences, 18 Professional Development Schools and, 76 see also Reform of education Curriculum development, 70 master/mentor teachers, 188 partnerships, 77-78, 90, 91-92, 96, 98, 176 Professional Development Schools, 77-78 Project 2061, 66 standardized test achievement, 54 standards, 17-18, 25-26, 28, 147, 156 state curriculum frameworks, 17-18, 25-26, 31, 63, 160, 174-175 teacher content knowledge and, 61, 63, 64 teacher decision- and policy-making, 38-39, 96, 103, 147, 156, 160 teacher education, 19, 61, 63, 64, 77-78, 90, 91-92, 96, 98, 147, 156, 160

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium teacher quality and student achievement, 49, 61, 63 teacher teams, 77 see also Content knowledge D Databases, 12, 13, 47, 111, 112, 114-115, 116, 122, 128 Demographic factors students, 24, 25, 39, 69, 146, 155, 156 teachers, 48, 49, 100, 192 see also Socioeconomic status Department of Education, 16, 85, 122(n.3) content specialists, 80 database of teaching jobs, 115 standards, 17 Descriptive Tests of Mathematics Skills, 50(n.4) Designing Professional Development for Teachers of Science and Mathematics, xvii Digest of Education Statistics, 38 Disabled students, 39, 168 see also Special education Discipline, student, 23, 26 E East Carolina University, 78 Economic factors, 11 career choice, general, 38 inservice education, 34, 37, 89, 98 partnerships, xv, 84, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98 student loans, 11, 110, 111, 113 see also Employment factors; Funding; Incentives; Socioeconomic status; Stipends; Wages and salaries Educational Testing Service, Praxis examinations, 2, 3, 31, 189-190 Education Trust, 44 Eisenhower Act for Improving Science and Mathematics Education, 99, 113-114, 172, 175 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 113 Employment factors, teachers databases, 115, 116 decision- and policy-making by teachers, 38-39, 96, 103, 147, 156, 161 hours of work, 62, 103, 108 internships, 191 job dissatisfaction, 11(n.5) professors, selection criteria, 23 professors, tenure and promotion, 105, 106 unions, 6-7, 83 working conditions, 39, 40, 65, 82(n.4), 95-96, 108, 113 class size, 45, 48, 72 see also Interns and internships; Licensing and certification; Recruitment and retention; Stipends; Wages and salaries Equipment, 40, 95, 98, 103-104 see also Laboratories Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity Evaluation of students, general national standards, 24, 25 partnerships, 97, 164, 165 self-assessment, 155 see also Standardized testing; “students” under Standards Evaluation of teachers, general, 50, 68 examinations, other than Praxis examinations, 2, 8(n.3) novice teachers, 92 partnerships, 92, 164 Praxis examinations, 2, 3, 31, 189-190 Professional Development Schools, 78 see also Licensing and certification; Standards; Teacher quality Extra-curricular activities, 8(n.3) F Facilities, see Equipment; Laboratories Federal government, 110-112, 113, 116 databases, 114-115 partnerships, funding, 98-99 reform of education, 11, 85 see also Department of Education; Funding Feedback inservice, 41, 50(n.3), 92, 144 preservice, 71, 76, 92, 164 Field experiences, students, 79, 95 Field experiences, teachers, 56, 68, 81, 104, 112, 161, 170, 171 alternative teacher education programs, 23 defined, 186-187 see also Interns and internships; Practicum experiences

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Flexner Report, 22 Foreign countries, see International perspectives; specific countries Funding, 11 committee study at hand, 27 equipment, 104 inservice education, 36, 73, 95, 98-99, 111, 113-114, 125, 162-163 internships, 125-126 mentor payments, 19, 162 partnerships, xv, 84, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98-99, 104-106, 110, 111, 113, 114, 162, 163, 172, 175-176 practicum experiences, 124, 125 preservice education, 89, 104-105, 125, 162, 175, 176 research on education, 92, 98, 122(n.3) retention of teachers, 36, 89 state content standards and, 19 G Geometry, 151 Georgia Southern University, 170-171 Germany, 54 Government role, see Federal government; Funding; Local government; State government Grade-level factors content knowledge requirements, ix, 55-56, 60, 118, 119-120 content specialists, 80 defined, 55(n.10) Professional Development Schools, 81 Graduate programs, see Post-graduate programs Green River Community College, 173-174 Group learning, 25, 147, 158 H Handicapped students, see Disabled students; Special education Henry Ford Community College, 174-175 High-stakes examinations, ix, 26, 34, 108 Historical perspectives, 24, 66, 68 education reform movement, 16-22, 60(n.12) Loucks-Horsley, Susan, xvii school environment, 145 science, history of, 148, 149, 172 teacher quality and student achievement, 49 Holistic learning, 83-84, 172 Holmes Group reports, 20, 22, 74 Hospitals, 7, 165-166 Houston Consortium, 166 I Illinois, 92(n.1) Incentives, xi, 7, 11, 33, 37, 38, 39, 82(n.4), 88, 110, 113 see also Wages and salaries Income, see Socioeconomic status; Wages and salaries Induction phase, xi, 1, 3, 18, 35, 37, 81, 92(n.1), 109-110, 112, 128, 159-163 attitudes of new teachers, 11(n.5) defined, 187 partnerships, 6, 76, 77, 91, 92(n.1), 96, 107, 169 pedagogy, 18, 23 Professional Development Schools (PDS), 6, 76, 77, 169 reform of education, 18, 85 retention of new teachers, 33, 72, 187 special education training, 19 state role, 75 teacher education defined, 191 see also Interns and internships; Mentoring Information technology, 40, 157 accreditation, institutions, 32 databases, 12, 13, 47, 111, 112, 114-115, 116, 122, 128 partnerships, 98, 103 see also Internet Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards, 59 Inquiry-based education, 21, 67, 68, 70, 95, 162 defined, 187 partnerships, 95 standards, 5, 18, 20, 24, 26, 58, 67, 143, 144, 145, 148-149, 154, 155-156 see also Problem solving Inservice education, 30, 33-34, 36-37, 46, 48, 65, 71, 73, 81-82, 110, 111, 122-124, 143, 159-163 career-long, 5, 7, 10, 16, 19, 23-24, 28, 37, 67, 75, 88, 108, 109, 114(n.1), 144

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium content knowledge, 33, 63, 64, 65, 123, 145 defined, 187 economic factors, 34, 37, 89, 98; see also “funding” infra feedback, 41, 50(n.3), 92, 144 funding, 36, 73, 95, 98-99, 111, 113-114, 125, 162-163 incentives, xi, 7, 11, 33, 37 informal, 101-102, 123, 156, 164-176 Internet, web sites, 42(n.10), 99(n.2, n.3), 159(n.1, n.2), 160(n.3), 161(n.4), 165(n.2), 170 partnerships, 76, 87, 88, 89, 91, 94, 97, 98-99, 100-103, 107, 126-128, 161, 164-176 peers/colleagues, 6, 11, 71, 78, 82, 102, 140, 142, 144, 152, 158, 162, 167, 187 preservice/inservice gap, 19, 27(n.5), 172 Professional Development Schools, 76 research by teachers, 71, 98, 102 school districts, 34, 73, 75, 96, 98, 99, 113, 126-128 standards, 33-34, 100-101, 143-147 state government role, 33, 37, 73, 75, 81, 97, 98, 161-163 teacher education, defined, 190-191 see also Induction phase; Mentoring; Post-graduate programs; Workshops Institutional factors, 5-7, 85, 144 see also Accreditation; Administrators and administration; Colleges and universities; Organizational factors; Partnerships and collaborations; Reform of education Interdisciplinary approaches, 58, 98, 121, 173, 174 International perspectives conceptual knowledge of teachers, 54 content knowledge of teachers, 54, 62-63 teacher compensation, 103 teaching practices, 53-55 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 16, 53-55 see also specific countries International Society for Technology in Education, 32(n.3) International Technology Education Association, 1(n.1), 30(n.1) Internet attitudes toward teaching as a profession, 40(n.8) Columbia University, 8(n.3) inservice education funding, 99(n.2, n.3) inservice education, other, 42(n.10), 159(n.1, n.2), 160(n.3), 161(n.4), 165(n.2), 170 preservice education, 42(n.10), 60(n.12), 129, 164(n.1), 168(n.3), 175-176 Professional Development Schools Standards Project, 77(n.3) Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement, 64 research funding, 122(n.3) state content standards, 31(n.2) university teaching and learning centers, 121(n.2) Urban Teacher Collaborative, sponsors, 37 Interns and internships, 11, 78, 111, 112, 113, 162, 168, 170, 186, 187, 191 defined, 191 funding, 125-126 partnerships, 12, 78, 89, 96, 100, 101, 107, 124-125, 126, 170 stipends, 11, 111, 113, 124-125, 191 Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium, 5, 42(n.10), 57-58, 68 J Japan, 53-54, 103 K Kansas, 162 Kansas Sate University, 166-167 Kentucky, 92(n.1) L Laboratories, 20, 40, 67, 115(n.1) partnerships, 76, 95, 103-104 preservice education, 57, 58, 59 Professional Development Schools, 76 safety codes, 40 Language factors, 25, 39, 48, 146, 152, 175

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Learning First Alliance, 118 Licensing and certification, 4, 18, 31-32, 37-38, 92(n.1), 106, 168 alternative programs, 23, 37-38, 51-52, 61-62, 107 defined, 192 examinations, general, 2, 31, 32-33, 34, 48 national standards, 34, 115-116 out-of-field teaching, 50-53, 54, 72, 79, 188 post-graduate requirements, 34, 37 Praxis examinations, 2, 3, 31, 189-190 teacher interest in subject vs, 82 teacher quality and student achievement, 48, 49-53, 54, 56 Life-long learning, xiv, 37, 111, 114(n.1) research on, 43, 121-122 teachers, career-long learning, 5, 7, 10, 16, 19, 23-24, 28, 37, 67, 75, 88, 108, 109, 114(n.1), 144 Loans, 11, 110, 111, 113 Local government, 110, 111 partnerships, 91, 94, 106, 110 reform of education, 11 see also School districts Loucks-Horsley, Susan, xvii Lower division courses, 95, 120, 121-122 defined, 187-188 M MacArthur Foundation, 170 Maryland, 79, 162 Mass media, ix Master teachers, 126 decision- and policy-making by, 39 defined, 188 partnerships, involvement in, 91, 96, 97, 107, 124, 127 see also Mentoring Mathematical Association of America, 5 Mathematicians, professional, see Scientists and mathematicians, professional Medical education, 7, 21, 36, 81, 165-166 Memorization, 26, 61, 119 see also Teaching as telling Mentoring, 36-37, 71, 89, 103, 117, 159 alternative teacher education programs, 23 compensation for, 19, 162 defined, 188 partnerships and, 87, 90, 92(n.1), 96, 100, 104, 107, 124, 125, 127, 161-162 practicum experiences, 87 standards, 19, 144 see also Interns and internships Metropolitan areas, see Urban areas Michigan, 174-175 Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity Missouri, 162-163 Model Clinical Teaching Program, 78 Motivation student, ix, 54, 69 teachers, general, 97; see also Recruitment and retention teacher support by administrators, 40, 159-161 N National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 16, 52-53, 54 National Association of Biology Teachers, 4-5, 66 National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 3, 5, 34, 35, 68, 69 National Center for Education Statistics, 38 National Center for Improving Science Education, 66, 81 National Commission on Mathematics and Science, 66 National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, 19, 44, 82, 161 National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 185 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 5, 66 standards, 17, 25, 51, 55, 67, 145-147, 174-175 National Education Goals Panel, 17 National Governors’ Association, 17 National Science Board, 45 National Science Education Standards, 17, 20, 24-25, 55, 56, 57, 66-67, 143-147, 148-158, 173, 175 inservice education funding, 99(n.3) teacher licensing examinations, 32 National Science Foundation, 5, 27, 66, 74, 174, 176 databases 114-115, 122 standards, 17 National Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education Digital Library, 114-115(n.1)

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium National Science Teachers Association, 5, 11(n.5), 17, 66, 118 A Nation at Risk, 16, 79-80 New teachers, see Induction phase New York City, 8(n.3) New York State Regents Examination, 8(n.3) North Carolina, 19, 78-79 North Carolina University-School Teacher Education Partnerships, 161 Novice teachers, see Induction phase O Ohio, 161-162 Oklahoma, 162 Organizational factors, 1-2, 5-7 collaborative efforts, x, xiv-xv, 8-10; see also Partnerships and collaborations see also Institutional factors; Reform of education Out-of-field teaching, 50-53, 54, 72, 79, 82 defined, 188 P Parents, 7, 8, 39-40 teacher engagement of, 69, 70, 158, 160 Partnerships and collaborations, 28, 41, 42-43, 83, 84, 87-108, 164-176 administrators involvement in, 76, 79, 83, 92(n.1) clinical schools and training, 7, 19, 22, 75, 161, 162, 166 colleges, involvement in, see “partnerships” under Colleges and universities conceptual knowledge, 7, 83 content knowledge, 88, 95, 96 contractual agreements, 97, 104, 105, 106 culture of education, 43, 101-102 current practices vs, xv, 76, 108 curriculum development, 77-78, 90, 91-92, 96, 98, 176 economic factors, xv, 84, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98; see also “funding” infra equipment, 95, 98, 103-104 evaluation of students, general, 97, 164, 165 evaluation of teachers, general, 92, 164 funding, xv, 84, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98-99, 104-106, 110, 111, 113, 114, 162, 163, 172, 175-176 induction of new teachers, 6, 76, 77, 91, 92(n.1), 96, 107, 169 information technology, 98, 103 inquiry-based education, 95 inservice education, 76, 87, 88, 89, 91, 94, 97, 98-99, 100-103, 107, 126-128, 161, 164 internships, 12, 78, 89, 96, 100, 101, 107, 124-125, 126, 170 laboratories, 76, 95, 103-104 local factors, 91, 94, 106, 110 master teachers, 91, 96, 97, 107, 124, 127 mentoring, 87, 90, 92(n.1), 96, 100, 104, 107, 124, 125, 127, 161-162 pedagogy, 81, 95, 96, 175 post-graduate programs, 98, 170 preservice education, 88, 92-97 (passim), 107, 164-176 Professional Development Schools (PDS), 6, 75-76, 77, 78-79, 81, 161, 166-167, 169-170 private sector involvement, 74, 91, 92-93, 94, 112 Professional Development Schools (PDS), 5-6, 22, 75-79, 81, 169-170 professional societies, role of, 42-43, 90, 92, 112, 145 recruitment and retention, 81, 89, 93, 99-100, 110, 111, 168, 170, 173-174, 176 research, x, 76, 77-78, 81, 82, 90, 91-93, 98, 101, 102 Professional Development Schools, 76, 77-78, 81 school districts, involvement in, x, xi, xiv-xv, 5-6, 8-9, 12-13, 28, 83, 87, 88, 91-105 (passim), 108, 109, 112, 114, 124-128, 165-168, 174, 175 scientists and mathematicians, professional, x, xi, xiv, xv, 5, 6, 8, 17, 28, 42, 68, 75, 82, 88, 90, 91, 103 standards, 77, 100-101, 174 state government involvement in, 9, 97, 110 teacher quality and, general, 78, 92 teaching practices and, 78, 83, 91-92, 96, 171, 175 see also Professional Development Schools (PDS) Pedagogy, 8, 24, 25, 146 alternative teacher education programs, 23

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium colleges and universities, 11-12, 23, 118, 119, 175 content knowledge, ix, 11-12, 60, 64, 67, 74, 79, 81, 118 defined, 188-189 induction phase, 18, 23 internships, 100 partnerships, 81, 95, 96, 175 post-graduate university programs, 2, 20, 22 research on, 49, 60 specialists, 80-81 teacher input, 39 teacher quality and student achievement, 49, 60 teaching practice, defined, 192 see also Teaching as telling; Teaching practices Peer review, research, x, 12, 111, 121-122 Peers/colleagues students, 44, 69, 168 teachers, 6, 11, 71, 78, 82, 102, 140, 142, 144, 152, 154, 155, 158, 160, 162, 167, 168 Performance standards, general international, 16 student, ix, 16, 17 teacher, 3, 68, 77, 123 see also Standardized testing Physical science, 51, 61, 67, 129, 148, 149-150 Portfolios, 144, 168, 171 Post-graduate programs, 2, 4, 20, 22, 33, 34, 123 licensing requirements, 34, 37 partnerships, 98, 170 pedagogy and, 2, 20, 22 research by, 92 teacher qualifications and student achievement, 48 see also Inservice education Practicum experiences, 56, 96, 124-125, 172 defined, 189 funding, 124, 125 mentoring, 87 problems in current practices, 18 Praxis examinations, 2, 3, 31 defined, 189-190 Preconceptions pedagogical content knowledge defined, 189 teacher content knowledge and, 61 Preservice education, ix, 18, 30, 31-32, 45, 71, 72, 74-75, 78, 87, 102, 111, 116-124 advisors, 35, 116-117 attitudes of participants toward, 19-20 committee study, topics, 28 content knowledge of teacher and student achievement, 49-65 (passim) content knowledge, other, 79-81, 118, 119-120, 145 defined, 190-191 feedback, 71, 76, 92, 164 funding, 89, 104-105, 125, 162, 175, 176 grades of student teachers, 4 information technology, 103 inquiry-based teaching, 95 inservice/preservice gap, 19, 27(n.5), 172 Internet, web sites, 42(n.10), 60(n.12), 129, 164(n.1), 168(n.3), 175-176 laboratories, 57, 58, 59 partnerships, 88, 92-97 (passim), 107, 164-176 Professional Development Schools (PDS), 6, 75-76, 77, 78-79, 81, 161, 166-167, 169 professional education curriculum strands, 20 professional organization oversight, 35-36, 42-43 reform of education, 18, 19, 20, 75, 85, 86 research by preservice teachers, 78, 98 research on, x, 47-55, 59-65 school districts, general, 9, 97, 100, 112 standards, 32, 33-34, 42, 56-57, 100-101, 143-147 teacher education, defined, 190-191 see also Colleges and universities; Field experiences; Interns and internships; Mentoring; Practicum experiences Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, 25, 32, 56 Private schools, 80 Private sector, 8, 43 partnerships, 74, 91, 92-93, 94, 112 see also Scientists and mathematicians, professional Problem solving, 68, 70 content knowledge of teachers and, 60, 62(n.13), 63 standards, 5, 18, 20, 70, 145-146, 152, 156, 157 see also Inquiry-based education Procedural knowledge, 23, 132 conceptual understanding vs, 186 Professional and disciplinary organizations, 13, 46, 66-71, 112, 128-130, 145-147, 161 committee study at hand, methodology, 27, 29 content specialists, 80, 118-119 conventions, 24 partnerships, 42-43, 90, 92, 112, 145 preservice program oversight by, 35-36, 42-43 see also specific organizations

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Professional development, general, ix, xiv, 1-3, 8-9, 30, 32, 83-84 career-long professional development, 5, 7, 10, 16, 19, 23-24, 28, 37, 67, 75, 88, 108, 109, 114(n.1), 144 professional community, defined, 190 see also Colleges and universities; Field experiences; Induction phase; Inservice education; Master teachers; Mentoring; Preservice education Professional Development Schools (PDS), 5-6, 22, 75-79, 81, 166-167, 169-170 administrators, 76, 79 curriculum development, 77-78 induction of new teachers, 6, 76, 77, 169 preservice education, 6, 75-76, 77, 78-79, 81, 161, 166-167, 169 recruitment and retention, 78 research, 76, 77-78, 81 standardized testing, 78 standards, other, 77, 163 state government role, 9, 75 Professional Development Schools Standards Project, 77 Professional organizations, see Professional and disciplinary organizations Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics, 25 Project 2061, 16-17, 66 Project TEACH, 173-174 Public opinion, 15-16 about education, general, ix, 22-23 about teachers, 2, 7-8, 15-16, 19, 22-23, 28, 40-41, 45 Purdue University, 171 Q Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement, 64 Questioning, 25, 157, 158 see also Inquiry-based education; Problem solving R Race/ethnicity, 25, 48, 69, 73, 146, 168 Reasoning, 70, 145-146, 152, 156 see also Inquiry-based education; Problem solving Recruiting New Teachers, Inc., 37(n.4) Recruitment and retention, ix, 1, 11, 35, 40-41, 52, 72, 73, 81, 109, 111, 122 community colleges, role of, 93, 173-174, 176 content specialists, 80, 111 funding, 36, 89 incentives, xi, 7, 11, 33, 100, 113 induction phase, 33, 72, 187 loan forgiveness, 110, 113 partnerships, 81, 89, 93, 99-100, 110, 111, 168, 170, 173-174, 176 Professional Development Schools, 78 reform of education, 85, 86 school districts, 99-100 workforce distribution and, 82(n.4), 99, 115 working conditions, 39, 40, 65, 82(n.4), 95-96 see also Wages and salaries Reform of education, xiii, xv, 1-2, 11, 30, 74, 85-87 colleges and universities, general, 17, 19, 20, 22, 85 content knowledge, xiii, xv, 1-2, 17-18, 20 historical perspectives, 16-22, 60(n.12) induction of new teachers, 18, 85 international perspectives, 53 preservice education, 18, 19, 20, 75, 85, 86 recruitment and retention, 85, 86 state government, 11, 17-18, 19, 30, 85 see also Partnerships and collaborations; Standards Research for Better Teaching, 159-161 Research on teaching, x, 4, 17, 27, 43, 111 attitudes toward profession, 40-41 classroom, 44 databases, 12, 13, 47, 111, 112, 114-115, 116, 122, 128 funding, 92, 98, 122(n.3) inservice teachers performing, 71, 98, 102, 143, 144 life-long learning, 43, 121-122 partnerships, x, 81, 82, 76, 77-78, 81, 90, 91-93, 98, 101, 102 Professional Development Schools, 76, 77-78, 81 pedagogy training, 49, 60 peer review, x, 12, 111, 121-122 teacher education, 47-55, 59-65, 111, 144, 155 teacher quality and student achievement, 44, 46, 47-55, 59-65, 99 by teachers, 71, 98, 102, 143, 144

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium working conditions, 82(n.4) see also Peer review Reflective practice, 37, 62, 64, 67, 71, 83, 103, 121, 160, 167, 171, 172 defined, 190 standards, 144, 147, 152, 155 Retention, see Recruitment and retention Rote learning, see Memorization Rubrics, 63 Rural areas, 33 S Salaries, see Wages and salaries School districts, 12-13, 45, 71, 79, 112, 147 career-long professional development, 23-24 decision- and policy-making by teachers, 38-39, 96, 103, 147, 156, 161 demographics, 72-73 evaluation of, 92 funding, 11, 98, 99, 104, 105, 113, 114 induction phase, 75, 96, 112, 113 inservice education, 34, 73, 75, 96, 98, 99, 113, 126-128 mentoring programs, 37 out-of-field teachers, 82 partnerships, x, xi, xiv-xv, 5-6, 8-9, 12-13, 28, 83, 87, 88, 91-105 (passim), 108, 109, 112, 114, 124-128, 165-168, 174, 175 preservice education, 9, 97, 100, 112 recruitment of teachers, 99-100 teacher incentives, 39(n.7) Science Work Experiences for Teachers, 8(n.3) Scientists and mathematicians, professional, x, xi, xiv, xv, 5, 6, 8, 17, 28, 42, 68, 75, 82, 88, 90, 91, 103 Skill acquisition conceptual understanding vs, 186 teacher education standards, 144 teaching practices, international perspectives, 53-54 Social factors, 68, 69, 71, 123, 146, 148, 149, 154-156 see also Cultural factors; Mentoring; Parents; Peers/colleagues; Public opinion Socioeconomic status, 44, 48, 51, 52, 72-73, 100, 113 see also Wages and salaries Special education, 19, 39, 169 Stakeholders, general, 9, 81-82 committee study at hand, methodology, x see also Partnerships and collaborations Standardized testing, ix American College Testing program, 48 high-stakes examinations, ix, 26, 34, 108 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 16, 52-53, 54 Praxis examinations, 2, 3, 31, 189-190 Professional Development Schools, 78 statewide testing of students, 34 teacher quality and scores, 48 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 16, 53-55 Standards, 18 colleges and universities, 17, 35-36, 100-101, 174 accreditation, 32, 35, 88, 106, 117, 185 content knowledge, 1(n.1), 2, 5, 17-18, 19, 23, 24, 30(n.1), 31, 55-59, 69, 70, 119-120, 143, 144, 145, 148-153 state standards for teacher education, 3, 5, 17-18, 19, 23, 31(n.2), 33, 34, 56-57 curricular, 17-18, 28, 147, 156 curriculum frameworks, 17-18, 25-26, 31, 63, 160, 174-175 field components, 23 inquiry-based education, 5, 18, 20, 24, 26, 58, 67, 143, 144, 145, 148-149, 154, 155-156 International Technology Education Association, 1(n.1) laboratory safety, 40 national, 5, 17-18, 20, 24-26, 28, 31, 32-33, 41, 46, 55-59, 66-69, 119, 143-158 partnerships, 77, 100-101, 174 problem solving, 5, 18, 20, 70, 145-146, 152, 156, 157 Professional Development Schools, 77, 78, 163 students, 5, 17-18, 20, 24-26, 28, 31, 32-33, 46, 70 teacher education, 32, 33-34, 55-59, 66-67, 100-101, 118, 119, 143-147 preservice, 32, 33-34, 42, 56-57, 100-101, 143-147 inservice, 33-34, 100-101, 143-147 skill acquisition, 144 state, 2, 3, 5, 17-18, 19, 23, 31-33, 34, 56-57, 159 see also Accreditation, institutions teachers, other, 3, 17, 20, 34, 41, 42, 46, 55-59, 66-70, 115-116, 148-158 mentoring, 19, 144

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium national, 28, 34, 55-59, 115-116, 143-158 performance, general, 3, 68, 77, 123 reflective practice, 144, 147, 152, 155 teacher quality and, general, 17, 55-59, 69-70 see also Licensing and certification see also Accreditation, institutions; Benchmarks; Performance standards; Reform of education Stanford Achievement Test, 50(n.2), 51 Stanford Test of Academic Skills, 50(n.2) State government, 3, 110-112, 113-114 content standards for teacher education, 3, 5, 17-18, 19, 23, 33, 34, 56-57 curriculum frameworks, 17-18, 25-26, 31, 63, 160, 174-175 databases, 114 examinations, general, 4 induction phase, 75 inservice education, 33, 37, 73, 75, 81, 97, 98, 161-163 internships, 125-126 mentoring programs, 37 partnerships, 9, 97, 110 Praxis examinations, 2, 3, 31, 189-190 Professional Development Schools, 9, 75 reform of education, general, 11, 17-18, 19, 30, 85 standards, 3, 5, 17-18, 19, 23, 25-26, 31-33, 36, 56-57, 159; see also “curriculum frameworks” supra statewide testing of students, 34 teacher education standards, 2, 3, 5, 17-18, 19, 23, 31-33, 34, 56-57, 159 teacher incentives, 39(n.7) see also Licensing and certification; specific states Stipends inservice education, 37 interns, 11, 111, 113, 124-125, 191 Summer Research Program for Science School Teachers (Columbia University), 8(n.3) Syracuse University, 171 T Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 185 Teacher educators, 32, 82, 90, 93, 112 defined, 191 student teacher advisors, 35, 116-117 Teacher quality, ix, xi, 3, 4, 5, 17-18, 19, 28, 44-65, 71, 86, 87, 99 competence requirements, general, 30 curriculum development, 49, 61, 63 licensing and, 48, 49-53, 54, 56 partnerships, 78, 92 pedagogy, 49, 60 Professional Development Schools, 78 public opinion, 15, 16 research on student achievement and, 44, 46, 47-55, 59-65, 99 standards and, 17, 55-59, 69-70 teacher educators, 18-19 see also Evaluation of teachers Teaching as telling, 20, 23, 24, 27 attitudes toward, 23 defined, 192 Teaching practices, x, xi, xii, 5, 12, 18, 25, 26, 54, 67, 69, 81, 146, 147, 163 defined, 192 group learning, 25, 147, 158 information technology and, 32 international perspectives, 53-55 lecture-based, 20, 26, 60, 67 national standards, 28, 146 parental attitudes, 39-40 partnerships, 78, 83, 91-92, 96, 171, 175 Professional Development Schools, 78 teacher quality and student achievement, 50(n.4), 43, 58 team teaching, 77, 80 video tapes, 53, 54-55 see also Inquiry-based education; Memorization; Pedagogy; Problem solving; Teaching as telling Team teaching, 77, 80 see also Mentoring Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System, 47 Tests and testing high-stakes examinations, ix, 26, 34, 108 teacher, 2, 8(n.3) attitudes of high-scoring novices, 11(n.5) Praxis examinations, 2, 3, 31, 189-190 see also Standardized tests Texas, 56-57, 78, 166, 168-169 Texas State Teachers Association, 11(n.5) Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 16, 53-55 Tomorrow’s Schools of Education, 74

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium U Unions, teacher, 6-7, 83 Universities, see Colleges and universities; specific institutions University of Arizona, 172 University of Kansas, 121(n.2) University of Maryland, 79 University of Massachusetts, 167 University of Texas, 169-169 University of Wisconsin, 64, 172 Urban areas, 8(n.3), 33, 37, 160-161, 175 Urban Teacher Collaborative, 37 V Videotapes, teaching practices analyzed, 53, 54-55 Virginia, 176 W Wages and salaries, 3 administrators, 3 student teacher advisors, 117 teachers, 3, 11, 19, 38, 103, 111, 113 see also Incentives; Stipends Westinghouse/Intel Talent Search Projects, 8(n.3) Wheelock College, 169 Wisconsin Center for Education Research, 80 Workshops, 24, 63, 73, 147, 187, 161 Project 2061, 16-17, 66 World Wide Web, see Internet