quality preparation and engage in rich professional development, their understanding of education reform and the strategies underlying that reform is enhanced. However, it is clear that even the best teachers by themselves will be unable to make the kinds of inroads in improving student learning and academic achievement that are being expected across the United States. Their efforts must be supported by school and policy infrastructure, policies, and priorities that offer to teachers opportunities for continuing professional development and growth and that provide the facilities and resources necessary to encourage teaching and learning. Teachers also need good working conditions in order to thrive as professionals. The next chapter discusses the kinds of recommendations that professional organizations for teaching and in the various science and mathematics disciplines have issued for improving teacher education.