urged the presidents and chancellors of the nation’s colleges and universities with education programs either to elevate the status of these programs so that the entire institution is concerned about their quality or eliminate them.

SOME EXEMPLARY APPROACHES TO TEACHER EDUCATION

Even as new recommendations for the education of teachers were emerging in the 1990s, teacher educators in this country already were exploring ways to improve their programs. The need for career-long professional development, combined with the need to restructure schools and teacher preparation programs, created a unique opportunity for collaborative approaches to systemic reform, where the many components of reform are addressed and their interdependencies and inter-relationships are recognized (Goodlad, 1990, 1994; Holmes Group 1986, 1990, 1995). Many individual school districts and states have now recognized the critical connection between ongoing professional development during the induction and post-induction years of teaching. They also have begun to institute a variety of programs that professionally nurture and sustain beginning teachers during the first years of their careers beyond the induction period. Descriptions of several of these programs are provided in Appendix D.

As noted throughout this report, there have been numerous calls for institutions of higher education to improve teacher education through enhanced communication among science and mathematics educators, scientists, and mathematicians. These calls for reform also have urged the creation of formal connections between institutions of higher education and public schools (e.g., Holmes Group, 1986; Goodlad, 1994). In keeping with this more systemic approach, a movement has been emerging slowly since the 1980s that seeks to improve simultaneously the education of both prospective and practicing teachers through partnerships between schools and postsecondary institutions.

Various labels have been applied to this movement and to the products that have emerged. These labels include “professional development schools,” “clinical schools,” “professional practice schools,” “school-university partnerships,” and “partnership schools” (Whitford and Metcalf-Turner, 1999). Professional Development School (PDS), the descriptor selected by the Holmes Group (1986), still predominates in the educational literature. It is the term this report will use to denote any intentional collaboration between a college or university and one or more



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