Industrial Restructuring

The U.S. economy’s expansion of the number of jobs over the last decade has not been shared equally by all industrial sectors. The numbers of jobs in some sectors have declined, whereas other sectors have shown remarkable growth not only in terms of the number of jobs but also in terms of their share of U.S. jobs (Table 4-1).

TABLE 4-1 Employment by Major Industry Division in 1988 and 1998 and Projected Employment for 2010 (numbers of employees, in millions)

Industry Group

1988

1998

2010

Total

117.8

138.5

162.8

Nonfarm wage and salary

104.6

125.0

147.9

Goods producing

25.1

25.3

25.3

Mining

0.7

0.6

0.5

Construction

5.1

6.0

6.8

Manufacturing

19.3

18.7

18.1

Service producing

80.6

100.7

122.6

Transportation, communication, and public utilities

5.5

6.5

7.6

Wholesale trade

6.0

6.8

7.8

Retail trade

17.9

22.5

25.2

Finance, insurance, and real estate

6.6

7.3

8.2

Services

26.0

37.6

51.5

Personnel supply services

1.4

3.2

4.9

Computer and data processing services

0.7

1.6

2.8

Health services

7.1

9.8

11.7

Offices of medical doctors

1.2

1.8

2.8

Offices of dentists

0.5

0.6

0.7

Offices of other health practitioners

0.2

0.5

0.8

Nursing and personal care facilities

1.3

1.8

2.2

Hospitals

3.3

3.9

4.5

Social services

1.6

2.6

3.8

Federal government

3.0

2.7

2.6

State and local governments (including public schools)

14.4

17.2

19.7

Agriculturea

3.4

3.6

3.6

Private Household Workers

1.2

1.0

0.8

Nonagricultural self employedb

8.7

9.0

10.5

aAgriculture includes landscaping firms, which account for the increases in this sector, as the increases for landscaping firms more than offset the declines in farm employment.

bThis group also includes unpaid family workers.

SOURCES: Historical data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey of Nonfarm Employment, Hours, and Earnings, annual averages, selected years. Projections are by the Committee to Assess Training Needs for Occupational Safety and Health Personnel in the United States, Institute of Medicine, based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ projections for 1996 to 2006.



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