Anger, 65

associated with susceptibility to diseases, 4

Anti-tobacco interventions, government level, 339–345

Anxiety, 67

Arousal, and memory modulation, 49–51

Assessing outcomes, 275–278

choice of outcome measures, 275–276

outcome measurement, 276–278

ASSIST. See American Stop Smoking Intervention Study

Atherosclerosis, 63

Autonomic nervous system, 62

allostasis in, 45

B

Behavior

definition of, 3, 20–21

health-related interventions affecting individual, 9–11

Behavior change, 333–335

maintaining, 334–335

models of, 183–191

producing, 333–334

Behavioral disease factors

anger, 65

anxiety, worry, and hope, 67

in cardiovascular health and disease, 64–67

depression, 66–67

hostility, 64–65

vital exhaustion, 65–66

Behavioral factors affecting health, 27, 37– 178

Behavioral intervention studies, of individuals, lessons from, 209

Behavioral interventions, funding supporting long-duration efforts for, 16, 348

Behavioral risk factors, 5–6, 87–137, 197–200

addressing, 197–200

alcohol consumption, 102–107

disease screening practices, 113–121

family and, 211

obesity, physical activity, and diet, 92– 102

sexual practices, 107–113

tobacco use, 87–92

unemployment, 155–156

Behavioral variables, integrating into interdisciplinary research, 16, 348

Bereavement, health and immunity effects of, 57

Biobehavioral factors in health and disease, 4–5, 39–86

brain as interpreter, regulator, and target, 47–51

cardiovascular health and disease, 61–67

defining, 20

developmental trajectories, 68–70

factors influencing long-term effects of stress, 57–61

immune system function in health and disease, 51–57

stress, health, and disease, 40–47

Biological risk factors, 27, 37–178

Biological variables, interdisciplinary research into integrating, 16, 348

Biosocial factors in health and disease, defining, 20–21

Blood cholesterol, screening for high, 115– 116

Bogalusa Heart Study, 70

Bone mineral density, 100

Bootheel Heart Health Project, 203

Brain function

arousal and memory modulation, 49–51

as interpreter, regulator, and target, 47– 51

neurotransmitters, experience, and behavior, 48–49

Breast cancer screening, 119–120

British Regional Heart Study, 155

Buffering, positive social relations providing, 146

C

Calcium intake, 100–101

Canadian Ministry of Health, 243



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