References

Alston, J.M., and P.O.Pardey. 1996. Making Science Pay: The Economics of Agricultural R&D Policy. Washington, D.C: AEI Press.


Baldwin, W., and P.McCardle. 1996. Peer review at NIH in the 21st century. FASEB Journal 10(December 1996):1563–1568.

Barry, P.J. 1997. Rates of return to public investment in agricultural research and education. CHOICES Fourth Quarter.


CED (Committee for Economic Development). 1998. America’s Basic Research: Prosperity Through Discovery.

Chubin, D. 1994. Grants peer review in theory and practice. Evaluation Review 18(Vol. 1,February):20–30.

Chubin, D. 1998. Looking Backward, Then Forward at American Research Universities. Pp. 375–384 in A.H.Teich et al., eds., AAAS Science and Technology Policy Yearbook. Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science

Chubin, D., and E.J.Hackett. 1990. Peerless Science: Peer Review and U.S. Science Policy. Albany: State University of New York Press.


Daily, G., P.Dasgupta, B.Bolin P.Crosson, J.du Gerny, P.Ehrlich, C.Folke, A.M. Jansson, B.O.Jansson, N.Kautsky, A.Kinzig, S.Levin, K.-G.Maler, P.Pinstrup-Andersen, D.Siniscalco, B.Walker. 1998. Food production, population growth, and the environment. Science 281:1291–1292.


Fuglie, K., N.Ballenger, K.Day, C.Klotz, M.Ollinger, J.Reilly, U.Vasavada, and J. Yee. 1995. Agricultural research and development: public and private investments under alternative markets and institutions. Agricultural Economic Report No. 735. Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.



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National Research Initiative: A Vital Competitive Grants Program in Food, Fiber, and Natural-Resources Research References Alston, J.M., and P.O.Pardey. 1996. Making Science Pay: The Economics of Agricultural R&D Policy. Washington, D.C: AEI Press. Baldwin, W., and P.McCardle. 1996. Peer review at NIH in the 21st century. FASEB Journal 10(December 1996):1563–1568. Barry, P.J. 1997. Rates of return to public investment in agricultural research and education. CHOICES Fourth Quarter. CED (Committee for Economic Development). 1998. America’s Basic Research: Prosperity Through Discovery. Chubin, D. 1994. Grants peer review in theory and practice. Evaluation Review 18(Vol. 1,February):20–30. Chubin, D. 1998. Looking Backward, Then Forward at American Research Universities. Pp. 375–384 in A.H.Teich et al., eds., AAAS Science and Technology Policy Yearbook. Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science Chubin, D., and E.J.Hackett. 1990. Peerless Science: Peer Review and U.S. Science Policy. Albany: State University of New York Press. Daily, G., P.Dasgupta, B.Bolin P.Crosson, J.du Gerny, P.Ehrlich, C.Folke, A.M. Jansson, B.O.Jansson, N.Kautsky, A.Kinzig, S.Levin, K.-G.Maler, P.Pinstrup-Andersen, D.Siniscalco, B.Walker. 1998. Food production, population growth, and the environment. Science 281:1291–1292. Fuglie, K., N.Ballenger, K.Day, C.Klotz, M.Ollinger, J.Reilly, U.Vasavada, and J. Yee. 1995. Agricultural research and development: public and private investments under alternative markets and institutions. Agricultural Economic Report No. 735. Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.

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National Research Initiative: A Vital Competitive Grants Program in Food, Fiber, and Natural-Resources Research Kelman, A., and R.J.Cook, 1996. The role of a competitive research grants program for agriculture, food, and natural resources. Bio Science 46:533–540. Klotz, C., K.Fuglie, and C.Pray. 1995. Private-sector agricultural research expenditures in the United States, 1960–92. Agricultural Economics Report No. 9525, Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. Kostoff, R. 1996. The Principles and Practices of Peer Review. Science and Engineering Ethics 3:19–34. Kostoff, R. 1997a. Peer Review: The Appropriate GPRA Metric for Research. Science 277:651–652. Kostoff, R. 1997b. Research Program Peer Review: Principles, Practices, Protocols. (http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/kostoff/index.html). Lipton, K.L., W.Edmondson, A.Manchester. 1998. The food and fiber system: Contributing to the U.S. and world economies. Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 742. Washington, DC, July 1998. Available online: <http://www.econ.ag.gov/epubs/pdf/aib742/index.htm> MacIlwain, C. 1998. Plant scientists want focus on the best and brightest. Nature 394:210–211. May, R. 1998. The scientific investments of nations. Science 281:49–51. McGeary, M., and P.M.Smith. 1996. The R&D Portfolio: A Concept for Allocating Science and Technology Funds. Science 274:1484–1485. Metzger, N., and R.N.Zare. 1999. Interdisciplinary Research: From Belief to Reality. Science 283:1096–1097. Mowery, D.C., N.Rosenberg. 1989. Technology and the Economic Pursuit of Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. National Science Foundation. 1999. Survey of Federal Funds For Research And Development: Fiscal Years 1996, 1997, 1998. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. Nature. 1998. Genetic Revolution Overdue at the USDA [editorial]. Nature 394:207. NRC (National Research Council). 1972. Report of the Committee on Research Advisory to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1989. Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food and Environmental System. National Academy Press: Washington, DC. National Research Council. 1994. Investing in the National Research Initiative: An Update of the Competitive Grants Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. National Academy Press: Washington, DC. National Research Council. 1995. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. National Academy Press: Washington, DC. National Research Council. 1998. Assessing the Value of Research in the Chemical Sciences. National Academy Press: Washington, DC. National Research Council. 1999. Evaluating Federal Research Programs. National Academy Press: Washington, DC. Public Law 101–624, 101st Congress, Federal Register. Science. 1998a. The Biocomplex World of Rita Colwell. 281:1944–1947. Science. 1998b. 1999 Budget: One Step Forward, Two Back. 282:392–393. Science. 1999. 2000 Budget: Thanks to NIH, R&D Ends Up With 5% Boost. 286:1836. US Congress, Office for Technology Assessment. 1977. Organizing and Financing Basic Research to Increase Food Production. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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National Research Initiative: A Vital Competitive Grants Program in Food, Fiber, and Natural-Resources Research US Congress, Office for Technology Assessment. 1991. Federally Funded Research: Decisions for a Decade. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. US Congress, Office for Technology Assessment. 1995. Challenges for U.S. Agricultural Research Policy. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. US Department of Agriculture. 1997. National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program Application Kit. July 1997. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture. US Department of Agriculture, National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program, personal communication, June 26, 1998. US Department of Agriculture, National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program, personal communication, September 1, 1998. US Department of Agriculture, National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program, personal communication, March 23, 1999. US General Accounting Office. 1996. Agricultural Research: Information on Research System and USDA’s Priority Setting, GAO/RCED 96–92. P. 44 and App. V. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. US General Accounting Office. 1999. Peer review practices at federal science agencies vary. GAO/RCED 99–99. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. US House of Representatives, Committee on Science. 1998. Unlocking Our Future: Toward a New National Science Policy [online]. Available online: <http://www.house.gov/science_policy_report.htm>. [September 24].