Under this latter model, connectivity is established by enabling individuals within an organization to communicate more effectively with similar organizations, often in other countries. An example of this would be increased communications, and hence collaboration, between NGOs working on health improvements speaking with other NGOs, both domestically and with sister organizations internationally, working on the same issue. Following the model, that organization would then increase communications with foreign funders and beneficiaries of its services. This would be followed by increasingly more sophisticated use and by the NGO increasing its activities and effectiveness. For example, the NGO will begin to use the Internet for more than just electronic mail, perhaps designing its own Web page, providing information about its activities, and so forth. Communication with other domestic NGOs in the same sector follows.

Within a country there are certainly a variety of models or paths that can be described. For example, while appropriate for NGOs, this model may be less accurate when describing the government sector or the private sector. The committee found that, among government ministries in Ghana and Senegal, communication with other governmental organizations is likely not the first use of the Internet.

Clearly, more study is required to develop any diffusion models or to suggest patterns in the paths of impact. The committee believes that diffusion and impact pathways are topics requiring significant further research, as noted in the next chapter.



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