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References ACGTH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 1997. Methyl Bromide in: Supplements to the Sixth Edition Documenta- tion of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH. American Biogenics Corporation. 1986. Two-Generation Reproduction Study Via Inhalation in Albino Rats Using Methyl Bromide. Study 450- ~ 525. Submitted to Methyl Bromide Panel, c/o Great Lakes Chemical Cor- poration, W. Lafayette, IN. American Biogenics Corporation, Decatur, IL. Anger, K.W., L. Moody, I. Burg, W.S. Brightwell, B.~. Taylor, I.M. Russo, N. Dickerson, J.V. Setzer, B.~. Johnson and K. Hicks. 1986. Neurobehavior- al evaluation of soil and structural fumigators using methyl bromide and sulfuryIfluoride. Neurotoxicology 7~3~:137-156. Bentley, K.S. 1994. Detection of Single Strand Breaks in Rat Testicular DNA by Alkaline ETution Following in Vivo Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Bromide. Haskell Laboratory Report No. 54-94. Chemical Manu- facturers Association. DPR Vol. 123 - ~ ~ ~ # 1 623 62. Biermann, H.W. and T. Barry. 1999. Evaluation of Charcoal Tube and SUMMA Canister Recoveries for Methyl Bromide Air Sampling. Environ- mental and Pest Management Branch. DPR. EH99-02 (Appendix K of DPR 1999~. Bond, I.A., J.S. Dutcher, M.A. Medinsky, R.F. Henderson, and L.S. Birnbaum. 1985. Disposition of i4C methyl bromide in rats after inhala- tion. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 78~2~:259-267. Bonnefoi, M.S., C.~. Davenport, and K.T. Morgan. 1991. Metabolism and toxicity of methyl iodide in primary dissociated neural cell cultures. Neurotoxicology. 12~1~:33-46. 76

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REFERENCES 77 Breslin, Wet., C.~. Zablotny, G.~. Bradley, K.D. Nitschke, and L.G. Lomax. 1990a. Methyl Bromide Inhalation Teratology Probe Study in New Zea- land White Rabbits. Final Report. K-000681-032. Study prepared by The Toxicology Research Laboratory, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, M] for The Methyl Bromide Industry Panel, Chemical Manufacturers As- sociation, Washington, DC. Breslin, W.~., C.~. Zablotny, G.~. Bradley, and L.G. Lomax. 199Ob. Methyl Bromide Inhalation Teratology Study in New Zealand White Rabbits. Final Report. K-000681-033. Study prepared by The Toxicology Research Lab- oratory, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI for The Methyl Bro- mide Industry Panel, Chemical Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC. Busey, W.M. ~ 993. Neuropathological Evaluation of Brains from F0 and Fl Rats in Two-generation Reproduction Study with Methyl Bromide Pathol- ogy Report. EPL project number 303-007. DPR Vol. 123-153 #125516. Chahoud, I., A. Ligensa, L. Dietzel and A.S. Faqi. ~ 999. Correlation between maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal effects. Reprod. Toxicol. 13~5~:375- 381. Cullen, A.C. and H.C. Frey. 1999. Probabilistic Techniques in Exposure As- sessment. A Handbook for Dealing with Variability and Uncertainty in Models and Inputs. New York: Plenum Press. Disse, M., F. Joo, H. Schulz and I.R. Wolff. 1996. Prenatal exposure to so- dium bromide affects the postnatal growth and brain development. I. Hirnorsch. 37~10~: 127- ~ 34. DjalaTi-Behzad, G., S. Hussain, S. Osterman-Golkar, and D. Segerback. ~ 98 ~ . Estimation of genetic risks of alkylating agents. VI. Exposure of mice and bacteria to methyl bromide. Mutat. Res. 84~1~: I-9. Donahue, J.M. 1997. DPR letters dated November 12. (Letters were sent to six MB registrants requesting data on frequency and duration of exposure). WH&S. DPR. DPR (Department of Pesticide Regulation). 1992. Toxicology Review Prompts Changes in Structural Fumigations. Release no. 92-07. Depart- ment of Pesticide Regulation, California Environmental Protection Agency. DPR (Department of Pesticide Regulation). 1999. Methyl Bromide, Risk Characterization Document for Inhalation Exposure. Draft RCD 99-02. De- partment of Pesticide Regulation, California Environmental Protection Agency. October 1999. Driscoll, C.D. and I.M. Huriey. 1993. Methyl Bromide: Single Exposure Va- por Inhalation Neurotoxicity Study in Rats. Lab. Project ID 92NIl97. Study prepared by Bushy Run Research Center, Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics Company, Export, PA for The Methyl Bromide Industry Panel, Chemical Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

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78 METHYL BROMIDE RISK CHARACTERIZATIONIN CALIFORNIA EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).1989. Risk Assessment Guid- ance for Superfund, Vol. I. Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part A. EPA/540/-9/002. Washington, DC: EPA, Office of Emergency and Re- medial Response. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). ~ 99 ~ . Guidelines for Develop- mental Toxicity Risk Assessment. EPA/600/FR-91/001. Washington, DC: EPA, Office of Research and Development. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). ~ 994. Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Do- simetry. EPA/600/~-90/066F. Washington, D.C.: EPA, Office of Research and Development. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1995. User's Guide for the Industrial Source Complex (TSC3) Dispersion Models. Volume 1. User Instructions. U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards; Emi- ssions, Monitoring and Analysis Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Online. Available: www.epa.~ov/ttn/scram/ EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996. The Particle TEAM (PTEAM) Study: Analysis of the Data: Final Report. Volume ITI. EPA/600/R-95/098. Research Triangle Park, NC: EPA, Office of Research and Development. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. Good Elaborator Prac- tices. 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 160. Eustis, S.~., S.B. Haber, R.T. Drew, and R.S. Yang. 1988. Toxicology and pathology of methyl bromide in F344 rats and B6C3FT mice following re- peated inhalation exposure. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. ~ 1~4~:594-610. Gansewendt, B., U. Foest, D. Xu, E. Hallier, H.M. Bolt, and H. Peter. 1991. Formation of DNA abducts in F-344 rats after oral administration or inha- lation of tt4C] methyl bromide. Food Chem. Toxicol. 29~:557-563. Gamier, R., M.O. Rambourg-Schepens, A. Muller and E. Hallier. 1996. Glutathione transferase activity and formation of macromolecular abducts in two cases of acute methyl bromide poisoning. Occup. Environ. Med. 53~3~:21 I-215. Gibbons, D.B., H.R. Fong, R. Segawa, S. Powell and I. Ross. 1996a. Methyl Bromide Concentrations in Air Downwind During Aeration of Fumigated Single-Family Houses. HS-1713. March 20, 1996. Worker Health and Safety Branch. Department of Pesticide Regulation. California Environ- mental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA. Gibbons, D.B., H.R. Fong, R. Segawa, S. Powell, and I. Ross. 1996b. Methyl Bromide Concentrations in Air Near Fumigated Single-Family Houses. HS- 1717. March 20,1996. Worker Health and Safety Branch. Department of Pesticide Regulation. California Environmental Protection Agency. Sacramento, CA.

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REFERENCES 79 Gotoh, K., T. Nishizawa, T. Yamaguchi, H. Kanou, T. Kasai, M. Ohsawa, H. Ohbayashi, S. Also, N. {kawa, S. Yamamoto, T. Noguchi, K. Nagano, M. Enomoto, K. Nozaki, and H. Sakabe. 1994. Two-Year Toxicological and Carcinogenesis Studies of Methyl Bromide in F344 rats and BDFl Mice. Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Symposium on Environmental and Occupational Health held 22-24 July, 1993 in Kobe, Japan. Hallier, E., S. Deutschmann, C. Reichel, H.M. Bolt and H. Peter. 1990. A comparative investigation of the metabolism of methyl bromide and methyl iodide in human erythrocytes. Tnt. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. 62~3~: 221 -225. Hallier, E., T. Langhof, D. Dannappel, M. Leutbecher, K. Schroder, H.W. Goergens, A. Muller and H.M. BoTt. ~ 993. Polymorphism of glutathione conjugation of methyl bromide, ethylene oxide and dichIoromethane in hu- man blood: influence on the induction of sister chromatic exchanges (SCE) in Tymphocytes. Arch. Toxicol. 67~3~: ~ 73- ~ 78. Hardisty, J.F. 1992. Histopathological Evaluation of Brains From Rats-Inha- lationStudyofMethyI-Bromide. EPLprojectnumber303-007. DPR Vol. 123-142 #113606. Haskell, D. ~ 988a. Methyl bromide fumigation with various commodities. A memorandum dated May ~ ~ to Thomas Thongsinthusak. WH&S, DPR. HSM-98003. Haskell, D. 1988b. Response to DAR request for additional information re- garding frequency and duration of methy] bromide fumigations. A memo- randum date August 24 to Thomas Thongsinthusak. WH&S, DAR. HSM- 98006. Hattis, D. and E. Anderson. 1999. What should be the implications of uncer- tainty, variability, and inherent 'biases'/'conservatism' for risk manage- ment decision making? Risk Anal. 19~:95-107. Hattis, D. and K. Bariow. 1996. Human interindividual variability in cancer risks--technical and management challenges. Human Ecol. Risk Asssess 2~: 194-220. Hattis, D. and D.E. Burmaster. 1994. Assessment of variability and uncer- tainty distributions for practical risk analyses. Risk Anal. 14~5~:713-730. Honma, T., M. Miyagawa, and M. Sato. 1987. Methyl bromide alters catecholamine and metabolite concentrations in rat brain. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 9~5~:3 69-375. Honma, T., M. Miyagawa, and M. Sato. 1991. Inhibition of tyrosine hydrox- ylase activity by methyl bromide exposure. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 13(1): 1-4. Honma, T., A Sudo, M. Miyagawa, M. Sato, and H. Hasegawa. 1982. Signif- icant changes in monoamines in rat brain induced by exposure to methyl bromide. Neurobehav. Toxicol. Teratol. 4~5~:521-524.

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80 METHYL BROMIDE RISK CHARY CTERIZA TION IN CALIFORNIA Hurtt, M.E., D.A. Thomas, P.K. Working, T.M. Monticello, and K.T. Morgan. 1988. Degeneration and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium following inhalation exposure to methyl bromide: Pathology, cell kinetics, and olfac- toryfunction. Toxicol.Appl.Pha~acol. 94~2~:311-328. Jaskot, R.H., E.C. Grose, B.M. Most, M.G. Menache, T.B. Williams, and A. Roycroft. 1988. The distribution and toxicological effects of inhaled methyl bromide in the rat. I. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 7~5~:631-642. Kaneda, M., N. Hatakenaka S. Teramoto, and K. Malta. ~ 993. A two-genera- tion reproduction study in rats with methyl bromide-fumigated diets. Food Chem. Toxicol. 31~:533-542. Kaneda, M., H. Hojo, S. Teramoto, and K. Malta. 1998. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits. Food Chem. Toxicol. 36~5~:421-427. Khera, K.S. 1984. Maternal toxicity: a possible factor in fetal malformations in mice. Teratology 29~3~:41 ~ - ~ 6. Khera, K.S., H.C. Grice HC, and D.~. Clegg, eds. 1989. Current Issues in Toxicology, Interpretation and Extrapolation of Reproductive Data to Es- tablish Human Safety Standards. New York: Springer. Kornburst, K.S., and I.S. Bus. ~983. The role of glutathione and cytochrome P-450 in the metabolism of methyl chloride. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 67~2~:246-56. Kramers, P.G., C.E. Voog6, A.G. Knaap, and C.A. van der HeijUen. 1985. Mutagenicity of methyl bromide in a series of short-term test. Mutat. Res. 155~1-2~:41 -47. McGregor, D.B. 1981. Tie or Mutagenic Screening of 13 NIOSH Priority Compounds. National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. Tnveresk Research Int. Ltd. DAR Vol. 123-103 #66718, #66719, #66720, #66721, and #66722. Medinsky, M.A., I.A. Bond, J.S. Dutcher, and L.S. Birnbaum. 1984. Dispo- sition of tl4C] methyl bromide in Fischer-344 rats after oral or intraperitoneal administration. Toxicology. 32~34: ~ 87- ~ 96. Medinsly, M.A., J.S. Dutcher, J.A. Bond, R.F. Henderson, I. L. Mauderly, M.B. Snipes, J.A. Mewhinney, Y.S. Cheng, and I,.S. Birnbaum. 1985. Uptake and excretion of ti4C] methyl bromide as influenced by exposure concentration. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 78~24:215-225. Mertens, I.~.W.M. ~ 997. A 24-Month Chronic Dietary Study of Methyl Bro- mide in Rats. Laboratory Study no. WIL-49014. WTE Research Laborato- ries. DAR Vol. 123- 179 # 158746. Michalodimitrakis, M.N., A.M. Tsatsakis, M.G. Christakis-Hampsas, N. Trikillis, and P. Christodoulou. 1997. Death following intentional methyl bromide poisoning: toxicological data and literature review. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 39~1~:30-34.

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REFERENCES 81 Mitsumori, K., K. Maita, T. Kosaka, T. Miyaoka, and Y. Shirasu. 1990. Two-year oral chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity study in rats of diets fumigated with methyl bromide. Food Chem. Toxicol. 22:109- 19. Moriya, M., T. Ohta, K. Watanabe, T. Miyazawa, K. Kato, Y. Shirasu. 1983. Further mutagenicity studies on pesticides in bacterial reversion assay sys- tems. Mutat. Res. 116~3-4~: 185-216. Mortelmans, K.E., and G.F. Shepherd. 1980. In Vitro Microbiological Mi- totic Recombination Assay of Methyl Bromide Using S. cereisiae D3. SR] International. DAR Vol. ~ 23-044 #9 ~ 3095. NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants: Advances and Opportunities. Washington, DC: Na- tional Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Science and Judgement in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Nelson, H.H., I.K. Wiencke, D.C. Christiani, TV. Cheng, Z.F. Zuo, B.S. Schwartz, B.K. Lee, M.R. Spitz, M. Wang, X. Xu, et al. 1995. Ethnic dif- ferences in the prevalence of the homozygous deleted genotype of glutathi- one S-transferase theta. Carcinogenesis 16~5~: 1243-1245. Newton, P.E. 1994a. An Up-and-Down Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study of Methyl Bromide in the Dog. Study no. 93-6067 prepared by Pharmaco LSR, East Millstone, N] for Chemical Manufacturers Association, Wash- ington, DC. Newton, P.E. 1994b. A Four Week Inhalation Toxicology Study of Methyl Bromide in the Dog. Study no. 93-6068 prepared by Pha~maco LSR, East Millstone, N] for Chemical Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC. Newton, P.E. 1996. A Chronic (12-Month) Toxicity Study of Methyl Bro- mide Fumigated Feed in the Dog. Study no. 94-3186. Huntingdon Life Science. DAR Vol. 123-175. #143945. NTP. (National Toxicology Program). ~ 992. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Methyl Bromide (CAS No. 74-83-9) in B6C3F! Mice (Tnhala- tion Studies). Tech. Rep. Series No. 385. Research Triangle Park: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Na- tional Institutes of Health. OEHHA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). ~993. Prop- osition 65: Safe Use Determination Workshop for Methyl Bromide (Tues- day November 30, 1993.) Transcript. California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. 205 pp. OEHHA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). ~ 999. Com-

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