Dr. England received his Ph.D. in geophysics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He served as scientist-astronaut for NASA 's Manned Spacecraft Center from 1967 to 1972 and again as a senior scientist-astronaut from 1979 to 1988. He was mission scientist for Apollo 13 and 16, and he flew as a mission specialist on space shuttle Challenger's Spacelab 2 in 1985. He served as program scientist for the space station during 1986 and 1987. Between 1972 and 1979, he was a research geophysicist and the deputy chief of the Office of Geochemistry and Geophysics with the U.S. Geological Survey. Dr. England has been at the University of Michigan since 1988, where he is professor of electrical engineering and computer science; professor of atmospheric, oceanic, and space science; and associate dean of the H.H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. He has received several honors from NASA: the Outstanding Science Achievement Medal (1973), the Space Flight Medal (1985), and the Exceptional Achievement Medal (1988). Dr. England has also received the U.S. Antarctic Medal (1979) and the Flight Achievement Award from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Donald C. Fraser

Director, Center for Photonics Research

Boston University

Boston, MA

Dr. Fraser received his B.S. and M.S. in aeronautics and astronautics and his Sc.D. in instrumentation from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dr. Fraser joined MIT's Instrumentation Laboratory (which became the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory in 1973) as a member of the technical staff (1962-1969), advanced to director of the Control and Flight Dynamics Division (1969-1981) and vice president of technical operations (1981-1988), and became executive vice president of the Laboratory in 1988. From 1990 to 1991, Dr. Fraser was deputy director of Operational Test and Evaluation for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence at the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). He was the appointed principal deputy under secretary of defense (acquisition) from 1991 to 1993. Since 1993, Dr. Fraser has been the director of Boston University's Center for Photonics Research and a professor of engineering and physics. Dr. Fraser's honors include DOD's Defense Distinguished Service Medal and election to the National Academy of Engineering (1990).

Aram M. Mika

Vice President

Business Development, Advanced Programs and Technology

Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space

Sunnyvale, CA

Mr. Mika received his M.S. in electrical engineering from Stanford University. His responsibilities as vice president of business development for advanced programs and technology at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space encompass strategy formulation, business acquisition, and advanced programs for the Missiles and Space business portfolio, including remote sensing, telecommunications, defensive systems, and strategic missile programs. These responsibilities

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