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REFERENCES Adams, Howard G. 1992 Mentoring: An Essential Factor in the Doctoral Process for Minority Students. Notre Dame' IN: National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering, Inc. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 1992 "Minorities in Science: The Pipeline Problem." Science 25S: ~75-~237. American Institute of Physics (ATP) 994 Physics in the High School* Il: Findings from the 1989-90 Nationwide Survey of Secondary School Teachers of Physics. College Park, MD: ALP. Astin, A. W., and H. S. Astin 992 Undergraduate Science Eaincation: The Impact of Different (college Environments on the Educational Pipeline in the Sciences. Final report. Los Angeles' CA: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA. Cantu, N. 994 "Civil Rights in the ~ 990s: Empowerment of Students and Parents." AAHE Bulletin 46 ~ ~ 0~: ~ ~ - 14. Chacon, M. A., E. G. Cohen, and S. Strover 1986 "Chicanes and Chicanos: Bamers to Progress in Higher Education." In Latino college Students, edited by M. A. Olivas. New York: Teachers College Press. College Entrance Examination Board 993 Profile of SA T and Achievement Test Takers. Princeton, NI: Educational Testing Service. Institute of Medicine (IOM), Committee on Increasing Minority Participation in the Health Professions 994 Balancing the Scales of Opportunity: Ensnaring Racial anal Ethnic Diversity in the Health Professions. Wash- ington' DC: National Academy Press. Koretz, D. 1992 "What Happened to Test Scores and Why." Educational Measurement: ]5'5?'eS and Practice. (Winter): 7-] I. Morrison, Catherine, Kenneth Griffin, and Peter Marcotullio 1995 "Retention of Minority Students in Engineering: Institutional Variability and Success." NACME Research Letter ~ 5 (2~: ~ - ~ 9.

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36 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 992 NASA 's Strategic Plan for Education. A Strategy for Change: 1993-1998. EP-289. Washington, DC: NASA. National Education Goals Pane! 1993 The National Education Goals Report. Volume One: The National Report. 2 vols. Washington, DC: U. S. Govern- ment Printing Office. 1993 Report of the University Relations NationalInstitutesofHealth(NIH) Task Force. Washington, DC: 1992 Minorities in NIH Extramural Grant NASA. Programs: Statistics, FY 1982-1991. Washington? DC: NTH. National Board on Graduate Education (NBGE) 1976 Minority Group Participation in Graduate Education. No. 5. Wash ington, DC: National Academy Press. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) 992 Historically Black Colleges and Universities, 1976-90. NCES 92-640. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 993a America 's High School Sophomores: A Ten Year Comparison. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. 993b Digest of Education Statistics: 1993. NCES 93-292. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1993c Trend in Degrees Conferred byinsti tutions of Higher Education: 1984-85 through 1990-91. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1993d Trends ir' Enrolin~ent in Higher Education by Racic'l/Ethnic Category: FaR 1982 through Fc'9 1991. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Research Council (NRC) 994 " Survey of Doctorate Recipients, Special Tabulations, March ~ 994." Washington, DC: NRC. 996a The National Scholars Program: Ex- cellence with Diversity for the F?'t?'re. Progran' Design. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 996b "Survey of Earned Doctorates, Special Tabulation' July ~996." Washington, DC: NRC. National Science Foundation (NSF) 990 wonted and Minorities in Science and Engineering. NSF90-301. Washing- ton' DC: NSF. 1994 H?~On Resource Development for Minorities in Science and Engineer- ing. NSF 94-122. Arlington, VA: NSF. 1995 Science and Engineering Degrees by Race/Ethnicity of Recipients: 1985- 1993. NSF 95-330. Arlington, VA: NSF.

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37 Oakes, I. 1990 Lost Talent: The Underparticipation of Women, Minorities, and Disabled Persons in Science. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. O'Brien, E. M. 1992 American Indians in Higher Educa- tion. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Peng, S. S., D. Wright, and S. Hill 1994 "Understanding Racial-Ethnic Di~er- ences in Secondary School Science and Mathematics Education." Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education. Quality Education for Minorities (QEM) 1990 EcIncation That Works: An Action Plan for the Education of Minoritie*. Cambridge? MA: Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology. Schmidt, John R. 1996 Memorandum to General Counsels. February 29, 1996. "Post-Aclarana, Guidance on Affirmative Action in Federal Employment." Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Associate Attorney General. Stewart, D. M. 1993 "Education, Race and Class: A New Calculus for the 2Ist Century." The 1992 Charles H. Thompson Lecture- Colloquium Keynote Address. Journal of Negro Education 62 (2~: 1 1 3-24. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census ~993 Schoo!Enroliment: SocialandEco- nomic Characteristics of St1lclents, October 1991. Current Population Survey. P-20-469. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.