Applied Psychology. She was a member of the National Academy of Education and has served as president of the American Educational Research Association. She has been published widely on such topics as memory strategies, reading comprehension, analogical thinking, and metacognition. She received both her B.A. and Ph.D. in psychology at the University of London, England.

JOHN R.ANDERSON is a professor of psychology and computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. His current research involves the acquisition of cognitive skills and the understanding of how human cognition is adapted to the information processing demands of the environment. He has developed the ACT-R production system and applied it to various domains of memory, problem solving, and visual information processing. He has published widely on human associative memory, language, memory, cognition, and the adaptive character of thought. He received a Ph.D. from Stanford University.

RODNEY R.COCKING is a senior program officer at the National Research Council and director of the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences. He was previously a social science analyst in the Office of Special Populations at the National Institute of Mental Health. His research focuses on cognition and cross-cultural issues in memory and learning and the higher order cognitive processes of planful behavior. He is cofounder and coeditor, with Irving E.Sigel, of the Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. Cocking is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (developmental psychology). He received a Ph.D. in developmental psychology and cognition from Cornell University.

ROCHEL GELMAN is a professor of psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles. She has been a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences and associate dean in the University of Pennsylvania graduate office of the faculty of arts and sciences. She serves on the editorial boards of several journals and has published widely on learning, from theory to classroom applications. She has been a Guggenheim Fellow, an American Psychological Association (APA) William James Fellow, and a recipient of the APA award for distinguished scientific contribution. She has also served on the National Research Council’s U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Psychological Science, Committee on Basic Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences, and Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences. She received a Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles.

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