HERBERT P.GINSBURG is the Jacob H.Schiff foundation professor of psychology and education at Teachers College, Columbia University. His work focuses on the intellectual development and education of young children, particularly poor and minority children. He has conducted research on the development of mathematical thinking and cognition in children, examining the implications for instruction and assessment in early education. His many publications include The Development of Mathematical Thinking (1983), Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development (1988), Children’s Arithmetic (1989), Entering the Child’s Mind: The Clinical Interview in Psychological Research and Practice (1997), and The Teacher’s Guide to Flexible Interviewing in the Classroom (1998). Dr. Ginsburg currently serves on the National Research Council’s Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy and on the Committee on Strategic Education Research Program Feasibility Study. He has a Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and has taught at Cornell University, the University of Maryland, and the University of Rochester.

ROBERT GLASER is a Distinguished University professor and the founder of the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh. He is a member of the James S.McDonnell Foundation’s Advisory Panel of Cognitive Studies for Educational Practice and is currently serving as a cochair of the National Research Council’s Committee on the Foundations of Assessment. Other National Research Council service includes: Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment and the Committee on Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education. He is also the editor of the series Advances in Instructional Psychology. He received his Ph.D. in psychological measurement and learning theory from Indiana University.

WILLIAM T.GREENOUGH is Swanlund and Center for Advanced Study professor of psychology, psychiatry, and cell and structural biology in the Beckman Institute at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is currently director of the University’s interdisciplinary neuroscience Ph.D. program. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received a Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles.

GLORIA LADSON-BILLINGS is a professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a senior fellow for urban education at the Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. Her research interests concern the relationship between culture and schooling, particularly successful teaching and learning for African American students. Her publications include both books and numerous journal articles and book chapters. She is currently the editor of the Teaching, Learning, and Human Development section of the American Educational



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