Collaborative learning, 279–280

action research, 199

computer technology and, 209, 212–213, 219, 221

scientist-student partnerships, 209, 217

students, 74, 108, 141, 152, 182, 192, 222– 223

teachers, 195, 197–199

Communication. See also Internet

cultural differences, 73, 108–111, 113

interactive, 207–208, 219, 262–263

mass media, 275–276

network, 220–221

research recommendations, 252, 253, 254, 262–263, 274, 282–283

Communities of learners, 100, 156–157, 168, 182, 199, 204

Communities of practice, 183–184, 197–198, 207–208, 209, 227–229, 243

Community learning environments

broad community connections, 61, 147– 149, 154, 224–226, 245–246, 274

children’s learning and, 82, 111, 112

classrooms, 25–26, 144–147, 154, 246

computer technology and, 82, 212–213, 224–226, 227–228

schools, 147, 154

student-scientist partnerships, 209

for teachers, 27, 197–199, 204, 227–229

Competence, 237–238.

See also Expert performance;

Strategic competence

zone of proximal development, 70–71, 72, 108

Competitiveness of students, 146

Comprehension-fostering activities, 107–108

Computational modeling research, 14

Computer language tasks, 53, 55, 60, 65

Computer programming experts, 33

Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments (CSILE), 219–220, 221, 227

Computer technology

classroom communications systems, 182, 247

classroom-community connections, 82, 207–208, 209, 224–226

curriculum innovations, 4, 21, 68, 207– 213, 262–263

feedback through, 178, 182, 216–224, 243, 258

games, 16

importance, 206–207, 229–230, 233, 243, 247

Internet, 27, 209, 220, 224–226, 227–228, 243, 270, 282

recommendations, 243–244, 247, 255–256, 257, 258, 262–263, 269, 270, 277, 284

scaffolds and scaffolding, 68, 213–216, 243

science of learning, databases, 278–279

teacher learning opportunities, 194, 195, 198, 226–229, 269

tools, 21, 68, 74, 207, 213–216, 243–244, 247, 257

tutoring environments, 178, 221–224, 225

Concepts

knowledge organized around, 9, 33, 36, 38, 42–44, 49, 181–182

representations of, 63, 65–66, 276

Conceptual change. See also Preconceptions

science, 179–180, 184–186, 187

understanding, 70–71

Conceptual learning, 14–15, 16–17, 20, 50, 165–166, 260–261

conceptual structures, 9, 33, 36, 38, 40, 42–44, 49, 59, 65–66, 87, 181–182

Conditionalized knowledge, 42–44, 49, 59–60, 62, 197

Consciousness studies, 6

Constructivism, 10–11, 192, 195, 199, 277

Content knowledge. See Subject-matter (discipline) knowledge

Content-process assessment framework, 143– 144

Context

and access to knowledge, 9, 42–44, 49, 77

and language development, 94–95

and transfer of learning, 53, 62–63, 64, 78, 185, 236

Contextualized reasoning, 74–75, 78

Contrasting-cases strategy, 60, 78

Conversational learning, 109–110, 220, 225– 226

Cooperative learning, 192

Counting, 71, 78, 83, 91, 92, 98–99, 100, 165– 166, 167, 169, 196

Cultural practices

children’s learning and, 23, 108–111, 113, 233, 276

classroom norms and, 146–147

communications, 73, 108–111, 113

enrollment demographics, 264

ethnography, 110–111

misinterpretation of, 151



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