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## How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition (2000) Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences (BBCSS)

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. "3 Learning and Transfer." How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000.

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 Page 57

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School
 BOX 3.4 Finding the Area of a Figure Understanding Method The understanding method encouraged students to see the structural relations in the parallelogram, for example, that the parallelogram could be rearranged into a rectangle by moving a triangle from one side to the other. Since the students knew how to find the area of a rectangle, finding the area of a parallelogram was easy once they discovered the appropriate structural relations. Rote Method In the rote method, students were taught to drop a perpendicular and then apply the memorized solution formula. Transfer Both groups performed well on typical problems asking for the area of parallelograms; however, only the understanding group could transfer to novel problems, such as finding the area of the figures below. or distinguishing between solvable and unsolvable problems such as The response of the “rote” group to novel problems was, “We haven’t had that yet.” SOURCE: Based on Wertheimer (1959).
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 Front Matter (R1-R10) 1 Learning: From Speculation to Science (1-28) 2 How Experts Differ from Novices (29-50) 3 Learning and Transfer (51-78) 4 How Children Learn (79-113) 5 Mind and Brain (114-128) 6 The Design of Learning Environments (129-154) 7 Effective Teaching: Examples in History, Mathematics, and Science (155-189) 8 Teacher Learning (190-205) 9 Technology to Support Learning (206-230) 10 Conclusions (231-247) 11 Next Steps for Research (248-284) References (285-348) Biographical Sketches of Committees' Members and Staff (349-357) Acknowledgments (358-362) Index (363-374)