NRL STRATEGIC SERIES

Plasma Processing and Processing Science

Panel on Plasma Processing

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1995



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Plasma Processing and Processing Science NRL STRATEGIC SERIES Plasma Processing and Processing Science Panel on Plasma Processing Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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Plasma Processing and Processing Science NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of Navy Contract N00014-93-C-0089 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Plasma Processing and Processing Science PANEL ON PLASMA PROCESSING Francis F. Chen, University of California at Los Angeles, Chair Denice Denton, University of Wisconsin Arthur H. Firester, Sarnoff Laboratories Mark J. Kushner, University of Illinois Gottlieb S. Oehrlein, State University of New York at Albany Emil Pfender, University of Minnesota Gary S. Selwyn, Los Alamos National Laboratory J. Leon Shohet, University of Wisconsin Navy Liaison Representative Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Consultant Sidney G. Reed, Jr.

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Plasma Processing and Processing Science NAVAL STUDIES BOARD David R. Heebner, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair George M. Whitesides, Harvard University, Vice Chair Albert J. Baciocco, Jr., The Baciocco Group, Inc. Alan Berman, Center for Naval Analyses Ruth M. Davis, Pymatuning Group, Inc. Seymour J. Deitchman, Institute for Defense Analyses John F. Egan, Lockheed Corporation Ralph R. Goodman, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University Sherra E. Kerns, Vanderbilt University David W. McCall, Far Hills, New Jersey Irwin Mendelson, Singer Island, Florida George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation Alan Powell, University of Houston Herbert Rabin, University of Maryland Robert L. Silverstein, Northrop Grumman Corporation Keith A. Smith, Vienna, Virginia Robert C. Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington H. Gregory Tornatore, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University Richard H. Truly, Georgia Tech Research University, Georgia Institute of Technology J. Pace VanDevender, Sandia National Laboratories Vincent Vitto, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Navy Liaison Representatives Paul Blatch, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Lee M. Hunt, Director Ronald D. Taylor, Associate Director Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Assistant Mary (Dixie) Gordon, Information Officer

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Plasma Processing and Processing Science COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS Richard N. Zare, Stanford University, Chair Richard S. Nicholson, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice Chair Stephen L. Adler, Institute for Advanced Study Sylvia T. Ceyer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Susan L. Graham, University of California at Berkeley Robert J. Hermann, United Technologies Corporation Rhonda J. Hughes, Bryn Mawr College Shirley A. Jackson, Rutgers University Kenneth I. Kellermann, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Hans Mark, University of Texas at Austin Thomas A. Prince, California Institute of Technology Jerome Sacks, National Institute of Statistical Sciences L.E. Scriven, University of Minnesota A. Richard Seebass III, University of Colorado Leon T. Silver, California Institute of Technology Charles P. Slichter, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Alvin W. Trivelpiece, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Shmuel Winograd, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center Charles A. Zraket, Mitre Corporation (retired) Norman Metzger, Executive Director

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Plasma Processing and Processing Science Preface To assist with its long-term strategic planning, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) requested that the Naval Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) form a panel on plasma processing science. NRL's request for independent advice acknowledged the importance of this area of science to a broad range of applications. Specifically, the use of plasmas for processing has found utility in numerous techniques for materials preparation and processing. Applications include the preparation of electronic materials (using processes such as chemical vapor deposition, reactive ion etching, and others); plasma spray techniques for coatings; the modification of metal surfaces to improve hardness, surface cleanliness, and so on; corrosion resistance; superconducting and magnetic films; and friction reduction. The subject of plasma processing, including discussion of key science and technology questions, has been addressed in the NRC report Plasma Processing of Materials: Scientific Opportunities and Technological Challenges (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991). That report discusses many scientific opportunities in the field, particularly those having microelectronic application. In response to NRL's request, the Panel on Plasma Processing was formed and directed to assess, based on both NRL's strengths and opportunities in the area, whether NRL should develop a coordinated and focused research program in plasma processing of materials and, if so, identify potential characteristics and research thrusts. As part of the effort, the panel was requested to identify selected research opportunities in the field as a whole and meet with NRL researchers working in the areas related to plasma processing of materials and receive briefings on existing and planned research efforts. Anticipating that the program would draw on NRL's extensive experience and expertise in the areas of plasma generation and transport, plasma-matter interaction and plasma modeling, and materials processing using plasma processing techniques, NRL also requested that the panel consider NRL's current capabilities in the areas overlapping the proposed program. In this context, specific questions posed for the panel's consideration were the following: To what extent and in what areas is progress in this multidisciplinary field dependent on the development of a scientific foundation that is not yet present at NRL? What set of new or existing research objectives can lead to tractable experiments or theory with conclusive results that promote (1) scientific advances and (2) technical utility (within a reasonable and finite/appropriate time scale) for potential programs at NRL? What cooperative efforts at NRL can provide the opportunity for synergistic interactions among the various thrust area units working with the subject? What additions and alterations to NRL's current facilities are needed to address new or coordinated research challenges? What collaborations with other research organizations would enhance NRL's ability to contribute to progress in this field? During the course of the study, the panel met three times—June 28-29, 1993, at NRL, July 29, 1993, at the University of Wisconsin Center for Plasma Processing, and August 21-23, 1993, at NRL.

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