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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization Appendix C U.S. Army Chemical Demilitarization and Remediation Activity Assessment Criteria to Aid in Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization (Extract) Note: Paragraph numbering in this appendix corresponds to the numbering scheme in section 3 of the U.S. Army's draft report, Assessment Criteria to Aid in Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization. ASSESSMENT PARAMETERS EVALUATION FACTOR ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 3.1 Public Law (Basic Category) 3.1.1 Significantly Safer 126.96.36.199 Is the alternative technology significantly safer than the baseline technology? 3.1.2 Equally or More Cost Effective 188.8.131.52 Is the alternative technology equally or more cost effective than the baseline process? 3.1.3 Meets the Schedule for Complete Stockpile Destruction 184.108.40.206 Does the alternative technology meet the schedule for completion of stockpile destruction? 3.2 Regulatory Legal (Basic Category) 3.2.1 International agreements (BDA and CWC) 220.127.116.11 Does this technology achieve irreversible destruction? 18.104.22.168 Does this technology enable inspectors to sample and analyze any part of an item in the storage and destruction facility? 22.214.171.124 Can the technology achieve the destruction levels specified by the treaty?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.2.2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 126.96.36.199 Can the operating standards of 40 CFR 264 and permit requirements of 40 CFR 270 be met? 188.8.131.52 Does this technology present unique permitting problems? 184.108.40.206 Can the siting criteria (seismic and floodplain) of 40 CFR 270.14 (b) (11) be met? 220.127.116.11 Will process residues meet the land disposal restrictions (LDR) treatment standards or is additional treatment available commercially to achieve LDR standards? 3.2.3 National Environmental Policy Act 18.104.22.168 Is the use of this technology adequately covered by the site-specific EIS? 22.214.171.124 If not, what delays would result from preparing supplemental NEPA documentation? 126.96.36.199 Will the use of this technology result in any noncompliance with laws/regulations or any breaches of existing ageements with state authorities? 188.8.131.52 Will the location and/or nature of this technology disproportionately affect minority or low-income communities? 3.2.4 Clean Air Act (air quality) 184.108.40.206 Will the emissions resulting from operation of this technology comply with air permit emission limits for criteria pollutants? 220.127.116.11 Will the emissions resulting from the operation of this facility comply with NESHAPs and state-specific hazardous air pollutant limits (if any)? 3.2.5 Clean Water Act (water quality) 18.104.22.168 Will this technology produce sufficient quantities of wastewater to warrant consideration of discharge to navigable waters as a likely disposal method? 22.214.171.124 If yes, can this technology, either alone or in combination with a secondary wastewater treatment process, achieve acceptable levels for all pollutants? 126.96.36.199 If acceptable levels cannot be achieved, are reasonable alternatives available for disposal of process wastewater?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.2.6 State and Local Community Requirements 188.8.131.52 For technologies implemented in MD or IN, will management of regulated chemical agents meet RCRA requirements for treatment, storage, and disposal? 184.108.40.206 For technologies implemented in MD or IN, will management of treatment residues meet RCRA requirements for treatment, storage, and disposal? 220.127.116.11 For technologies implemented in IN, will monitoring data from a comparable facility be available prior to the scheduled date of RCRA permit issuance? 3.3 Environmental (Basic Category) 3.3.1 Solid waste generation 18.104.22.168 What is the total amount of solid waste generated? 22.214.171.124 What is the total amount of hazardous (that is, RCRA regulated) waste generated? 126.96.36.199 Will the solid waste be able to meet the requirements for offsite transportation and disposal? 3.3.2 HAZMAT release during transportation engineering control? 188.8.131.52 What is the total quantity of other hazardous material that must be transported? 184.108.40.206 What is the frequency of HAZMAT release due to transportation accidents? 3.3.3 HAZMAT (other than agent) release outside engineering control? 220.127.116.11 What is the classification of hazardous materials at the facility? 18.104.22.168 What is the expected frequency of release due to external events? 22.214.171.124 What is the frequency of HAZMAT handling upsets with the potential for release due to equipment failure? 126.96.36.199 What is the frequency of HAZMAT handling upsets with the potential for release due to human error? 188.8.131.52 What is the probability of HAZMAT release given that a handling upset has occurred? 184.108.40.206 What is the largest quantity of co-located HAZMAT?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.3.4 Monitoring Requirements 220.127.116.11 How many effluent streams does the facility have? 18.104.22.168 What are the characteristics of the effluents? 22.214.171.124 Can current monitoring techniques adequately characterize the effluents (including detection of minute amounts of agent if present)? 126.96.36.199 What monitoring strategy(ies) (personal and/or general area) is indicated for CSM and non-CSM contaminants in the work sites? 188.8.131.52 How often must monitoring take place, both general area and personal? 184.108.40.206 What instrumentation, sampling media, equipment will be needed? 3.4 Worker Safety (Basic Category) 3.4.1 Agent release outside of engineering controls 220.127.116.11 What is the probability of stockpile release over the duration of the disposal program? 18.104.22.168 What is the expected rate of stockpile handling errors based on the process demands? 22.214.171.124 What is the probability of facility release due to external events over the duration of the disposal program? 126.96.36.199 What is the probability of process upsets due to equipment failure over the duration of the disposal program, which if unmitigated have the potential for agent release? 188.8.131.52 What is the probability of process upsets due to human error over the duration of the disposal program, which if unmitigated have the potential for agent release? 184.108.40.206 What is the probability of agent release outside engineering controls given that a process upset has occurred? 220.127.116.11 What evaluated operations indicated the use of local exhaust ventilation (LEV)? 18.104.22.168 What LEV is best suited to contain exposure to CSM, non-CSM? 22.214.171.124 What heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is best suited for these operations? 126.96.36.199 Do the LEVs and HVAC control exposure in accordance with federal and DA regulations and guidelines?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.4.2 Extent of agent release 188.8.131.52 What is the largest possible release of agent? 3.4.3 Facility damage parameters 184.108.40.206 Is there a mechanism that could yield to a catastrophic failure of the facility? 220.127.116.11 What is the probability of an uncontrolled chemical reaction? 3.4.4 Ability to mitigate a process upset 18.104.22.168 What is the time available to mitigate a process upset? 22.214.171.124 Are mitigating systems effective at mitigating the process upset? 3.4.5 Worker exposure to agent 126.96.36.199 What is the frequency at which agent containing/handling equipment requires maintenance, inspection, or repair? 188.8.131.52 To what extent is manual operation adjacent to agent containing equipment required? 184.108.40.206 What is the extent of manual operation required for facility decontamination? 220.127.116.11 What is the frequency of worker exposure due to agent release? 18.104.22.168 What are the health hazards involved with the operations? 22.214.171.124 What CSM and non-CSM pose the greatest hazards? 126.96.36.199 What is the most feasible method of control? 188.8.131.52 What are the number of operations per year? 184.108.40.206 Are the operations procedures adequate? 220.127.116.11 What is the risk to worker health during the operations? 18.104.22.168 What personal protective equipment is required for non-CSM operations?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.4.6 Worker injury due to industrial and industrial hygiene hazards 22.214.171.124 What is the expected number of injuries during construction? 126.96.36.199 What is the expected number of injuries during processing9 188.8.131.52 What are the expected number of injuries during facility decontamination? 184.108.40.206 What is the expected level of exposure to industrial hygiene hazards? 3.4.7 Long-term worker health effects 220.127.116.11 What are the potential long-term health effects for plant workers from the alternative technology? 3.5 Public Acceptance (Basic Category) 3.5.1 Community involvement (Citizens' Advisory Commission) 18.104.22.168 Does the alternative technology effectively destroy HD chemical agent (MD CAC)? 22.214.171.124 Does the alternative technology effectively destroy VX chemical agent (IN CAC)? 126.96.36.199 Can the alternative technology pilot plant be permitted in Maryland (MD CAC)? 188.8.131.52 Can the alternative technology pilot plant be permitted in Indiana (IN CAC)? 184.108.40.206 What is the anticipated success of community involvement programs aimed at improving understanding and acceptance of the technology? 3.5.2 Public perception of risk 220.127.116.11 How difficult is it to communicate the magnitude of the public risk from the technology? 18.104.22.168 What is the perceived level of public risk from the technology? 3.5.3 Public perception of environmental impact 22.214.171.124 What is the acceptability of the technology to environmental regulators and environmental interest groups? 126.96.36.199 How difficult is it to accurately define the effects of the technology on the environment?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.5.4 Public benefit 188.8.131.52 What are the potential benefits to the local community from the process? 3.6 Public Health and Safety (Basic Category) 3.6.1 Facility containment safeguards 184.108.40.206 Is the facility designed to contain escaping materials? 3.6.2 Long-term public health effects 220.127.116.11 What are the potential long-term health effects associated with the alternative technology? 3.7 Schedule (Basic Category) 3.7.1 Design and development schedule 18.104.22.168 What is the schedule for laboratory testing? 22.214.171.124 What is the schedule for bench-scale testing? 126.96.36.199 What is the schedule for pilot-scale design and construction? 188.8.131.52 What is the schedule for pilot-scale testing and evaluation? 184.108.40.206 What is the effect on the developmental schedule imposed by regulatory requirements? 3.7.2 Facility construction schedule 220.127.116.11 What is the time required for facility construction? 18.104.22.168 What is the probability that the facility can be constructed in a timely manner? 3.7.3 Facility systemization schedule 22.214.171.124 What is the time required for facility systemization? 126.96.36.199 What is the effect of experience with this technology on the systemization schedule? 3.7.4 Facility operating schedule 188.8.131.52 What are the expected duration of operations? 184.108.40.206 What is the effect on the operations schedule that results from trial run requirements? 3.7.5 Facility closure schedule 220.127.116.11 What is the schedule for facility closure and site remediation?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.7.6 Program's schedule impact 18.104.22.168 What is the probability that the technology will meet treaty requirements? 22.214.171.124 What is the probability that the testing will be completed so that data are available for a successful Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) in July 1996? 126.96.36.199 What is the probability that data will be provided in sufficient time to support pilot-plant design and permitting? 188.8.131.52 What is the probability that the facility can be constructed in a timely manner? 184.108.40.206 What is the probability that systemization will proceed in a timely manner? 220.127.116.11 What is the probability that the operation will proceed in a timely manner? 3.8 Cost (Basic Category) 3.8.1 Research, development and design cost 18.104.22.168 What are the expected labor costs to develop the alternative technology to a level of maturity comparable to the baseline? 22.214.171.124 What are the expected facility costs for each phase of development? 126.96.36.199 What are the expected materials costs for each phase of development? 188.8.131.52 What equipment costs are associated with each phase of development? 184.108.40.206 What costs are associated with decontaminating and decommissioning the RDT&E facility? 3.8.2 Facility construction cost 220.127.116.11 What are the costs associated with site-specific design engineering? 18.104.22.168 What is the magnitude of real estate acquisition costs? 22.214.171.124 What are the costs associated with facility construction? 126.96.36.199 What are the costs associated with providing the required support for the facility?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.8.3 Equipment procurement and installation costs 188.8.131.52 What are the costs for procuring and installing required equipment? 3.8.4 Facility systemization costs 184.108.40.206 What are the costs required to bring the facility to an operational status? 3.8.5 Facility operations costs 220.127.116.11 What is the labor cost to operate the facility? 18.104.22.168 What is the cost of materials to operate the facility? 22.214.171.124 What is the recurring cost of maintenance? 126.96.36.199 What is the cost of transportation of hazardous and nonhazardous material offsite? 188.8.131.52 What is the cost of treatment and disposal of hazardous and nonhazardous material transported offsite? 3.8.6 Facility closure and decommissioning costs 184.108.40.206 What is the cost to disassemble, decontaminate, raze, remove, and restore the site? 3.8.7 Cost of schedule extension 220.127.116.11 What are the costs to manage the stockpile and disposal program? 18.104.22.168 What are the costs to store and maintain the stockpile? 22.214.171.124 What are the costs to maintain the required emergency response capability? 126.96.36.199 What are the costs to maintain the required facility? 3.9 Research, Development, Testing, and Evaluation (Basic Category) 3.9.1 Laboratory testing 188.8.131.52 What are the characteristics of the reaction products? 184.108.40.206 What are the characteristics of the reaction rate during the laboratory tests? 220.127.116.11 What is the completeness of the agent destruction during the laboratory-scale testing? 18.104.22.168 What are the thermodynamic properties of the chemical reactions? 22.214.171.124 What is the probability that the measured results will translate into expected results from tests of bench-scale physical models? 126.96.36.199 What is the probability that the measured results will translate into expected results from tests of a pilot-scale design? (Successful pilot scale-up)
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.9.2 Bench-scale testing 188.8.131.52 What are the reaction products measured in the bench-scale tests? 184.108.40.206 What is the reaction rate measured in the bench-scale tests? 220.127.116.11 What is the extent of agent destruction? 18.104.22.168 What are the mixing requirements for the test? 22.214.171.124 What are the gaseous and liquid effluents measured during the bench-scale tests? 126.96.36.199 Can the composition of the feed and product streams be monitored to the required detection limits? 188.8.131.52 Does there appear to be materials compatibility problems? 184.108.40.206 What is the probability that the demonstrated bench-scale test results will translate to performance for a pilot-scale facility? 3.9.3 Agent quality testing 220.127.116.11 What is the extent of the polymerization in HD containers? 18.104.22.168 Are impurities found in VX ton containers? 3.9.4 Materials testing (corrosion) 22.214.171.124 What are the interactive corrosion properties of components of the facility? 3.9.5 Ton container decontamination 126.96.36.199 Can ton containers be effectively decontaminated? 188.8.131.52 What are the gaseous and liquid effluents from the ton container decontamination process? 3.10 Process Design (Basic Category) 3.10.1 Equipment availability 184.108.40.206 Is commercially available equipment acceptable for constructing the required alternative technology system? 220.127.116.11 Is development required for first of a kind components? 3.10.2 Construction materials 18.104.22.168 Is there a need to create and develop new or unique construction materials?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.10.3 Process Complexity 22.214.171.124 What are the failure rate characteristics of critical process equipment components? 126.96.36.199 Does the facility have sufficient system availability to meet the planned agent destruction schedule? 188.8.131.52 Are computer-based plant automation schemes used to control the overall demilitarization process? 184.108.40.206 Are sufficient quantities of trained operational and maintenance personnel available? 3.10.4 Scale of operations 220.127.116.11 What are the inherent characteristics of small-scale neutralization concepts that would adversely affect scale-up? 3.10.5 Feed preparation 18.104.22.168 What are the essential elements of feed preparation? 22.214.171.124 Can the process of feed preparation be affected by the presence of impurities? 126.96.36.199 Can the process accommodate variability with respect to existing chemical agents? 188.8.131.52 Does the pretreatment process prevent agent from re-forming? 3.10.6 Process flexibility 184.108.40.206 How difficult is it to turn down a progressing process? 220.127.116.11 Is the process affected by power interruption? 3.10.7 Effectiveness of chemical agent destruction 18.104.22.168 How fast and how completely does the process destroy agent? 22.214.171.124 Does the process destroy impure gelled agent? 126.96.36.199 Is the agent destruction process irreversible? 3.10.8 Process monitoring and control 188.8.131.52 Does existing proven process monitoring technology meet process control requirements? 184.108.40.206 Are all chemical reactions easily controlled? 220.127.116.11 How stringent are the process monitoring and control requirements?
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Evaluation of the Army's Draft Assessment Criteria to Aid in the Selection of Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 3.10.9 Residue and effluent handling 18.104.22.168 Are systems currently available for handling residue and effluent? 22.214.171.124 What is the disposal method for facility decontamination solutions? 3.10.10 Treatment of metal parts 126.96.36.199 How effective is the decontamination of the ton containers? 188.8.131.52 How effective is the process for removing heels? 184.108.40.206 How effective is the process for removing gels? 3.10.11 Utility and power requirements 220.127.116.11 What are the energy requirements of the process? 18.104.22.168 What are the water requirements for the process? 22.214.171.124 What are the basic and auxiliary fuel requirements? 126.96.36.199 What are the land area requirements of the facility?
Representative terms from entire chapter: