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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the California Symposium Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy Proceedings of the California Symposium NAS Beckman Center, Irvine, California November 11-13, 1992 Committee on the Coastal Ocean Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1995
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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the California Symposium NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report and the symposium on which it was based was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Coastal Ocean Program and National Ocean Service), the Environmental Protection Agency, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Minerals Management Service, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. Cover art was created by Ellen Hill-Godfrey. Ms. Hill-Godfrey received her Master of Fine Arts degree from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Her paintings and prints have been exhibited in the Washington, D.C., area and throughout the Mid-Atlantic and Southern regions of the United States. Ms. Hill-Godfrey has done illustrations for the University of Georgia Press and the University of North Carolina ’s Endeavors. She lives in Germantown, Maryland, and teaches at The Barnesville School. Copies of this report are available from Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20418. Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the California Symposium COMMITTEE ON THE COASTAL OCEAN DONALD F. BOESCH (Chairman), University of Maryland, Cambridge DAVID G. AUBREY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts KENNETH BRINK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts BILIANA CICIN-SAIN, University of Delaware, Newark JOHN D. COSTLOW, Duke University (ret.), Beaufort, North Carolina MICHAEL DAGG, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin JOHN FARRINGTON, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts JUDITH P. GRASSLE, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey RICHARD HILDRETH, University of Oregon, Eugene CHARLES A. NITTROUER, State University of New York, Stony Brook SCOTT W. NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Kingston JAMES E. OVERLAND, NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Washington THOMAS M. POWELL, University of California, Davis JERRY SCHUBEL, State University of New York, Stony Brook DEBORAH L. SWACKHAMER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis KARL K. TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut CLINTON WINANT, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California Staff EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Study Director LAVONCYÉ MALLORY, Project Assistant
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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the California Symposium OCEAN STUDIES BOARD WILLIAM MERRELL (Chairman), Texas A&M University, Galveston DONALD F. BOESCH, University of Maryland, Cambridge GERALD A. CANN, Independent Consultant, Rockville, Maryland ROBERT CANNON, Stanford University, California WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ELLEN DRUFFEL, University of California, Irvine RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida JOHN E. FLIPSE, Consultant, Georgetown, South Carolina MICHAEL FREILICH, Oregon State University, Corvallis GORDON GREVE, Consultant, Houston, Texas SUSAN HANNA, Oregon State University, Corvallis ROBERT KNOX, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California JOHN MAGNUSON, University of Wisconsin, Madison ARTHUR NOWELL, University of Washington, Seattle BARRY RALEIGH, University of Hawaii, Honolulu PETER RHINES, University of Washington, Seattle FRANK RICHTER, University of Chicago, Illinois BRIAN ROTHSCHILD, University of Maryland, Solomons THOMAS C. ROYER, University of Alaska, Fairbanks LYNDA SHAPIRO, University of Oregon, Charleston SHARON SMITH, University of Miami, Florida PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin Staff MARY HOPE KATSOUROS, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Staff Officer ROBIN PEUSER, Research Associate ELIZABETH TURNER, Research Associate MARY PECHACEK, Administrative Associate ROBIN ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant LAVONCYÉ MALLORY, Senior Secretary CURTIS TAYLOR, Office Assistant
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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the California Symposium COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN (Chairman), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EDITH BROWN WEISS, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin EDWARD A. FRIEMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville W. BARCLAY KAMB, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University, California S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen’s University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada THOMAS A. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN SILBERGELD, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate
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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the California Symposium This page in the original is blank.