Early Childhood Intervention

Views from the Field

Report of a Workshop

Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development

Jack P. Shonkoff, Deborah A. Phillips, and Bonnie Keilty, editors

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,

National Research Council and

Institute of Medicine

 

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
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Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field Early Childhood Intervention Views from the Field Report of a Workshop Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development Jack P. Shonkoff, Deborah A. Phillips, and Bonnie Keilty, editors Board on Children, Youth, and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine   NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC

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Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by funds provided by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Nursing Research, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, the Administration for Children and Families, the U.S. Department of Education, The Commonwealth Fund, the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, the Vira I. Heinz Endowment, and National Academies funds. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government. In general, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2000) Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field. Report of a Workshop. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development. Jack P. Shonkoff, Deborah A. Phillips, and Bonnie Keilty, eds. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07039-2 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press , 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20418 Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field COMMITTEE ON INTEGRATING THE SCIENCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT JACK P. SHONKOFF (Chair), Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University DEBORAH L. COATES, Department of Psychology, The City University of New York GREG DUNCAN, Institute for Policy Research, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University FELTON J. EARLS, Department of Child Psychology, Harvard Medical School ROBERT EMDE, Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center YOLANDA GARCIA, Children's Services, Santa Clara County Office of Education SUSAN GELMAN, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan SUSAN J. GOLDIN-MEADOW, Department of Psychology, University of Chicago WILLIAM GREENOUGH, Departments of Psychology and Cell and Structural Biology, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana RUTH T. GROSS, Professor Emerita, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University Medical School MEGAN GUNNAR, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota MICHAEL GURALNICK, Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington ALICIA LIEBERMAN, Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco BETSY LOZOFF, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan RUTH MASSINGA, The Casey Family Program, Seattle, Washington STEPHEN RAUDENBUSH, School of Education, University of Michigan ROSS THOMPSON, Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska CHARLES A. NELSON (liaison from the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Early Experience and Brain Development), Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota DEBORAH A. PHILLIPS, Study Director NANCY GEYELIN MARGIE, Research Assistant RONNÉ WINGATE, Senior Project Assistant

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Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES JACK P. SHONKOFF (Cochair), Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University EVAN CHARNEY (Cochair), Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts Medical Center JAMES BANKS, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington SHEILA BURKE, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University DAVID CARD, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley DONALD COHEN, Department of Child Psychiatry, Yale University MINDY FULLILOVE, Department of Clinical Psychobiology, Columbia University KEVIN GRUMBACH, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco MAXINE HAYES, Community and Family Health, Department of Health, Olympia, Washington MARGARET HEAGARTY, Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University RENÉE JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University Hospital SHEILA KAMERMAN, School of Social Work, Columbia University HARRIET KITZMAN, School of Nursing, University of Rochester SANDERS KORENMAN, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College HONORABLE CINDY LEDERMAN, Circuit Court Judge, Juvenile Division, Dade County, Florida SARA McLANAHAN, Office of Population Research, Princeton University VONNIE McLOYD, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor PAUL NEWACHECK, Institute of Health Policy Studies and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco GARY SANDEFUR, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison RUTH STEIN, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine PAUL WISE, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center RUTH T. GROSS (liaison from the Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine), Department of Pediatrics (emeritus), Stanford University ELEANOR MACCOBY (liaison from the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council), Department of Psychology (emeritus), Stanford University WILLIAM ROPER (liaison from the Institute of Medicine), School of Public Health University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

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Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field MICHELE D. KIPKE, Director ELENA O. NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence MARY GRAHAM, Associate Director of Communications MARY STRIGARI, Administrative Assistant

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Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS JACK P. SHONKOFF (Workshop Chair), Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University KATHRYN BARNARD, Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington BARBARA T. BOWMAN, Erikson Institute, Chicago, Illinois JEANNE BROOKS-GUNN, Teachers College, Columbia University MARY BETH BRUDER, Department of Child and Family Studies, University of Connecticut Health Center DEBORAH L. COATES, Department of Psychology, The City University of New York MARY DOZIER, Department of Psychology, University of Delaware GREG DUNCAN, Institute for Policy Research, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University DALE FARRAN, Department of Teaching and Learning, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University VERONICA FEEG, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, George Mason University MICHAEL GURALNICK, Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington BARBARA HOWARD, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine JANE KNITZER, National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University SAMUEL MEISELS, School of Education, University of Michigan CRAIG RAMEY, Civitan International Research Center, University of Alabama, Birmingham ARNOLD SAMEROFF, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan RUBY TAKANISHI, Foundation for Child Development, New York, New York DEBORAH KLEIN WALKER, Bureau of Family and Community Health, Massachusetts Department of Public Health MARK WOLERY, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill HIRO YOSHIKAWA, Psychology Department, New York University

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Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development would like to thank all who participated in the Workshop on the Science of Developmental Promotion and Early Childhood Intervention for their extensive preparation in advance of the workshop, for sharing their expertise and experiences through stimulating discussions, and for their thoughts and comments that lent to the shaping of this report. Thank you also to Greg Duncan, Robert Emde, Susan Goldin Meadow, Michael Guralnick, and Ross Thompson for representing the committee at the workshop. We especially thank Jack Shonkoff for serving as chair and for providing leadership in the drafting of this report. We also gratefully acknowledge the contributions of those who worked to organize the workshop and prepare this report. Deborah Phillips led and oversaw the undertaking of the workshop, from its conceptualization and funding to the writing of this report. Bonnie Keilty provided invaluable assistance by writing the first draft and helping to revise later drafts of the workshop summary. Ruth T. Gross provided essential insight and editing guidance on the summary. Ronné Wingate facilitated planning and preparation for the meeting, artfully coordinated meeting logistics, and ensured that the meeting ran smoothly. Nancy Geyelin Margie assisted with all phases of the workshop and preparation of this report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Mark Appelbaum, Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego; Robert Granger, Manpower Development Research Corporation, New York; Penny Hauser-Cram, School of Education, Boston College; Sheila Kamerman, School of Social Work, Columbia University; Deborah Stipek, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles; Heather Weiss, Harvard Family Research Project, Harvard University; and Martha Zaslow, Child Trends, Washington, DC. Although the individuals listed above provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Early Childhood Intervention: Views from the Field CONTENTS     Defining Child Competence and Well-Being,   4     Family Factors That Influence Early Development,   8     Community Factors That Influence Early Development,   13     Essential Features of Effective Interventions,   17     Challenges for Policy and Practice,   25     Concluding Thoughts,   33     Appendixes    A   Descriptions of Early Childhood Intervention Programs Mentioned in the Report,   37  B   Workshop Agenda,   40  C   Selected Reports from the Board on Children, Youth, and Families,   43

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