Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities

Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

Board on Army Science and Technology

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Board on Army Science and Technology Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAD19-00-C-0009 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06945-9 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. , Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES The National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM DAVID S. KOSSON, chair, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee CHARLES E. KOLB, vice chair, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts DAVID H. ARCHER, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PIERO M. ARMENANTE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark DENNIS C. BLEY, Buttonwood Consulting, Inc., Oakton, Virginia JERRY L.R. CHANDLER, George Mason University, McLean, Virginia FRANK P. CRIMI, Lockheed Martin (retired), Saratoga, California J. ROBERT GIBSON, DuPont Life Sciences, Wilmington, Delaware MICHAEL R. GREENBERG, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick KATHRYN E. KELLY, Delta Toxicology, Crystal Bay, Nevada PETER B. LEDERMAN, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark JAMES F. MATHIS, Exxon Corporation (retired), Houston, Texas CHARLES I. McGINNIS, consultant, Charlottesville, Virginia CHARLES F. REINHARDT, DuPont Company (retired), Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania (since 1/5/00) H. GREGOR RIGO, Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, Ohio (until 3/6/00) KOZO SAITO, University of Kentucky, Lexington W. LEIGH SHORT, URS Greiner Woodward-Clyde (retired), Mount Pleasant, South Carolina ARNOLD F. STANCELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta STEVEN R. TANNENBAUM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CHADWICK A. TOLMAN, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM TUMAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia Staff DONALD L. SIEBENALER, study director HARRISON T. PANNELLA, program officer WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, senior project assistant DANIEL E. J. TALMAGE, JR., senior project assistant

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM H. FORSTER, chair, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland THOMAS L. MCNAUGHER, vice chair, RAND Corporation, Washington, D.C. (until 12/31/99) ELIOT A. COHEN, Johns Hopkins University, Washington D.C. RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT F. DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering, Glendale, California LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, Delaney Group, Potomac, Maryland (until 12/31/99) PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Columbus, Indiana EDWARD J. HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center (retired), Naperville, Illinois ELVIN R. HEIBERG, III, Heiberg Associates, Inc., Mason Neck, Virginia (until 2/29/00) GERALD J. IAFRATE, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana DONALD R. KEITH, consultant, Alexandria, Virginia KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JOHN E. MILLER, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia JOHN H. MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MILLARD F. ROSE, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Hicks & Associates, McLean, Virginia CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Venables and Associates, Towson, Maryland JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida ALLEN C. WARD, Ward Synthesis, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, associate director CHRIS JONES, financial associate DEANNA SPARGER, senior project assistant

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Preface The United States has maintained a stockpile of chemical warfare agents and munitions for more than half a century. In 1985, Public Law 99-145 mandated an “expedited” effort to dispose of M55 rockets containing unitary chemical warfare agents because of their potential for self-ignition. This program soon expanded into the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), whose mission is to eliminate the entire stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSDP developed the baseline incineration system for that purpose. Since 1987, the National Research Council (NRC), through the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee), has provided technical and scientific advice and counsel to the Army's disposal program. In 1992, after setting several intermediate goals and dates, Congress enacted Public Law 102-484, which directed the Army to dispose of the entire stockpile of unitary chemical warfare agents and munitions by December 31, 2004. In 1994, the committee endorsed the baseline incineration system as an adequate technology for destroying the stockpile. In the 1970s, the Army commissioned studies of different disposal technologies and tested several of them. In 1982, the Army selected incineration as the method it would use for the disposal of agents and associated propellants and explosives and the thermal decontamination of metal parts. In 1984, the NRC Committee on Demilitarizing Chemical Munitions and Agents reviewed a range of disposal technologies and endorsed the Army's selection of incineration. Since then, in response to public concerns about incineration and the evolution of other technologies, the NRC has also carried out several evaluations of alternative disposal technologies (Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions [1993], Review and Evaluation of Alternative Chemical Disposal Technologies [1996], and Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons [1999]). These reports recommended the development of chemical detoxification technologies for use at the two stockpile sites (Aberdeen, Maryland, and Newport, Indiana) where only bulk chemical agent (i.e., no energetically configured munitions) is stored. The Army's selected nonincineration technologies for the Aberdeen, Maryland, and Newport, Indiana, stockpile sites both use chemical hydrolysis (reaction with alkaline water at elevated temperatures) to destroy chemical agent. The hydrolysis process is followed by either biodegradation (for treatment of mustard hydrolysis products at Aberdeen) or supercritical water oxidation (for destruction of VX hydrolysis products at Newport) to comply with requirements of the Chemical Weapons Convention and with U.S. environmental regulations. The development of these processes required extensive laboratory, bench-scale, and pilot-scale testing of individual processing steps to support engineering designs for the complete, integrated processes. The Stockpile Committee has been evaluating the engineering process designs for integrating the individual processing steps for each site in parallel with the finalization of these designs by the Army and its contractors. In this report, the committee began with the design documents used by the Army as a basis for selecting final design contractors. Additional test data and design modifications suggested by the final design contractors were also reviewed as they became available through documentation and briefings. The committee 's objective is not to provide a detailed, comprehensive design review of the processes, but to assess the integration of processing steps, analyze major design changes, and identify overarching issues that should be addressed to enhance safety and efficacy. The committee greatly appreciates the support and assistance of NRC staff members, Donald L. Siebenaler, Harrison T. Pannella, William E. Campbell, Daniel E.J. Talmage Jr., and Carol R. Arenberg, in the production of this report. David S. Kosson, chair Charles E. Kolb, vice chair Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Homi C. Bhedwar, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Thomas B. Brill, University of Delaware David H. Johnson, EQE International, Inc. Edwin N. Lightfoot, Jr., University of Wisconsin Cecil Lue-Hing, consultant Dan Luss, University of Houston George W. Parshall, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Donald R. Paul, University of Texas Harrison Shull, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School Thomas G. Spiro, University of British Columbia Douglass F. Taber, University of Delaware Jefferson W. Tester, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Arthur W. Westerberg, Carnegie Mellon University While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   4  2   ACQUISITION DESIGN PACKAGE PROCESSES AND MODIFICATIONS   6      Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal Facility,   6      Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility,   8      Agent Holding and Processing,   9      Holding and Processing,   9      Commingling of Process Vent Gases and Plant Ventilation Air,   10      Use of Common Designs,   11      Planning Closure of the Facilities,   11  3   SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF VX HYDROLYSATE   12      Materials of Construction and Other Issues,   12      SWEC Test Results,   12      General Atomics Test Results,   13      Operational Issues,   15      Safety Issues,   15  4   MANAGEMENT OF PROCESS AND NONPROCESS WASTES   17  5   AGENT AND NONAGENT MONITORING AND MEASUREMENTS   19      Monitoring Agent in the Vapor Phase,   19      Monitoring Agent in Condensed Phases,   19      Monitoring Solid Materials,   19      Monitoring Liquids,   20      Measurement of VX at Low Concentrations,   21      Reliability and Efficiency of Measurement Methods,   21

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities  6   RISK MANAGEMENT   22      Risk Assessments and Hazard Evaluations,   22      Schedule Risk,   22     REFERENCES   24     APPENDIXES       A  Process Description for the Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal Facility   29     B  Process Description for the Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility   36     C  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   40

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Figures and Tables Figures  2-1   Basic component processes in the ADP for the ABCDF,   7  2-2   Basic component processes in the ADP for the NECDF,   8  6-1   Timing of risk management activities,   23  A-1   Simplified flow diagram for the ABCDF,   30  A-2   ADP VOC treatment system, wetted-wall evaporation followed by ultraviolet radiation and liquid-phase carbon adsorption,   33  A-3   Current VOC treatment system, air stripping followed by gas-phase carbon adsorption,   34  B-1   Simplified flow diagram for the NECDF,   37 Tables  3-1   Preliminary Results of Corrosion Testing with Noble Metals and Superalloys,   14  A-1   Process Inputs for HD/Water Neutralization with Biodegradation,   31  A-2   Process Outputs for HD/Water Neutralization with Biodegradation,   32  A-3   Volume of Off-Gas,   35  B-1   Process Inputs for VX Neutralization/Posttreatment,   38  B-2   Process Outputs for VX Neutralization/Posttreatment,   39

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Acronyms ABCDF Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal Facility ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment ADP acquisition design package CWC Chemical Weapons Convention EST engineering-scale test GC gas chromatography HD distilled mustard HE hazard evaluation HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography HRA health risk assessment HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning ITMS ion-trap mass spectrometry MOC material(s) of construction MS mass spectroscopy MSD mass selective detection MSZ magnesia-stabilized zirconia NECDF Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility NMR nuclear magnetic resonance NRC National Research Council PMCD Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization ppb parts per billion QRA quantitative risk assessment RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SBR sequencing biological reactor SCWO supercritical water oxidation SWEC Stone and Webster Engineering Company TDG thiodiglycol VOC volatile organic compound VX a nerve agent YSZ yttria-stabilized zirconia

OCR for page R1
Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities This page in the original is blank.