Blast Mitigation for Structures

1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program

Committee for Oversight and Assessment of Blast Effects and Related Research

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.



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Blast Mitigation for Structures: 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program Blast Mitigation for Structures 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program Committee for Oversight and Assessment of Blast Effects and Related Research Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C.

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Blast Mitigation for Structures: 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.Washington, D.C.20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. DSWA01-98-C-0075 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Available from: Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC, 20418 Printed in the United States of America.

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Blast Mitigation for Structures: 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is ad-ministered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Blast Mitigation for Structures: 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program COMMITTEE FOR OVERSIGHT AND ASSESSMENT OF BLAST EFFECTS AND RELATED RESEARCH METE A. SOZEN, chair, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana STEPHEN W. ATTAWAY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico ERIK AUF DER HEIDE, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia W. GENE CORLEY, Construction Technology Laboratories, Skokie, Illinois EVE HINMAN, Hinman Consulting Engineers, Inc., San Francisco, California ROBERT P. KENNEDY, RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Escondido, California SAM A. KIGER, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia STUART L. KNOOP, Oudens and Knoop, Architects, PC, Chevy Chase, Maryland JOHANNA LAPIERRE, RTKL Associates, Inc., Washington, D.C. MARK LOIZEAUX, Controlled Demolition Inc., Phoenix, Maryland J. L. MERRITT, J.L. Merritt Consulting Engineer, Yucaipa, California DAVID J. PELGRIM, E. K. Fox & Associates, Ltd., Fairfax, Virginia EUGENE SEVIN, consultant, Lyndhurst, Ohio CHARLES H. THORNTON, Thornton/Tomasetti Engineers, New York, New York Staff RICHARD G. LITTLE, director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment LORI JACKSON, administrative associate

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Blast Mitigation for Structures: 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT RICHARD N. WRIGHT, chair, National Institutes of Standards and Technology (retired), Gaithersburg, Maryland GREGORY BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park JONATHAN BARNETT, urban planner, Washington, D.C. MAX BOND, Davis, Brody, Bond, LLP, New York, New York JACK E. BUFFINGTON, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville MARY COMERIO, University of California, Berkeley CLAIRE FELBINGER, American University, Washington, D.C. PAUL GILBERT, Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade, and Douglas, Seattle, Washington AMY GLASMEIER, Pennsylvania State University, University Park CHRISTOPHER M. GORDON, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston NEIL GRIGG, Colorado State University, Fort Collins JEREMY ISENBERG, Weidlinger Associates, New York, New York MARTHA A. ROZELLE, The Rozelle Group, Ltd., Phoenix, Arizona DAVID SKIVEN, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan SARAH SLAUGHTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ERIC TEICHOLZ, Graphic Systems, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts RAE ZIMMERMAN, New York University, New York, New York Staff RICHARD G. LITTLE, director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment LYNDA L. STANLEY, executive director, Federal Facilities Council JOHN A. WALEWSKI, project officer LORI JACKSON, administrative associate GAIL KELLEY, research assistant

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Blast Mitigation for Structures: 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and knowledge of the subject matter, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the NRC in making this report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Chester A. Canada, U.S. Department of Defense David R. Dibner, Bernard Johnson, Inc. (retired) William J. Hall, University of Illinois Theodor Krauthammer, Pennsylvania State University Joseph Penzien, International Civil Engineering Consultants Robin M. Wagner, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Richard M. Wright, National Institutes of Standards and Technology (retired) While these individuals provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of the report rests with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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Blast Mitigation for Structures: 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   6      Scope of the Study,   7      Organization of the Study,   7      Organization of the Report,   8      Reference,   8  2   THE BLAST MITIGATION FOR STRUCTURES PROGRAM   9      Program Review,   9      Program Assessment,   11      Conclusion and Recommendation,   14      References,   14  3   REVIEW OF PROGRAM ACTIVITIES   15      Structural Issues,   15      Reducing Injuries through Nonstructural Approaches,   23      International Programs,   26      Conclusions and Recommendations,   26      References,   28  4   TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER   31      Background,   31      Needs of the Engineering Community,   31      Building Codes and Standards,   32      Role of Academia,   34      Handling of Sensitive Information,   34      A Framework for Technology Transfer,   35      Conclusion and Recommendation,   36      References,   36     APPENDIXES       A Biographies of Committee Members,   41     B Blast Mitigation for Structures, Program Master Plan,   45

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Blast Mitigation for Structures: 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program List of Figures and Tables FIGURES  2-1   Relative funding levels for Task 2 subtasks and work-unit categories,   12  2-2   Framework for defining and refining the BMSP,   12  4-1   Model of a technology transfer strategy,   36 TABLES  2-1   Funding Levels by Major Component,   10  2-2   Funding by Fiscal Year ($000's),   10  2-3   Task 2 Subtasks and Work-Unit Categories,   11

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Blast Mitigation for Structures: 1999 Status Report on the DTRA/TSWG Program Acronyms ACI American Concrete Institute ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ATC Applied Technology Council BFRL Building and Fire Research Laboratory BMAG Blast Mitigation Action Group BMSP Blast Mitigation for Structures Program BSSC Building Seismic Safety Council COTS commercial-off-the-shelf CTS-1 Controlled Test Structure-1 DoD U.S. Department of Defense DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency EERI Earthquake Engineering Research Institute ERDC Engineering Research and Development Center (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FY fiscal year LBTF large blast and thermal simulator NEHRP National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation SEAOC Structural Engineers Association of California TSWG Technical Support Working Group V&V verification and validation (of computational codes)

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