APPENDIX C
Vision 21 Program Plan: Clean Energy Plants for the 21stCentury. April, 1999

ACTIVITIES and MILESTONES

Activities and Milestones under each program element and subelement are described below.

1. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

a. Market Analysis

1. Conduct market analyses/program reviews. Two market analyses will be conducted: the first in FY01 and the second in FY08. The second study will update developments involving possible restrictions on emission of greenhouse gases and market changes reflecting deregulation of the power industry. These analyses will suggest what features and characteristics of Vision 21 plants are desired by potential purchasers. Variables to be included in the study are plant size, whether fuel and/or chemical co-products are produced and, if so, the identity of the products. The prospects for the use of low-value ''opportunity feedstocks" and biomass in combination with fossil fuel feedstocks will be investigated. The effects of deregulation of the power industry and emergence of distributed generation (DG) power systems on the valuation and use of waste heat will be examined. Markets for the heat will be described in terms of size, distribution, and other salient characteristics, e.g., chemical processing, space heating, and space conditioning. The effect of this market on the size of DG power plants will be developed, as will opportunities for designing larger DG plants to enhance the value of byproduct heat. The need for CO2 collection for sequestration will be



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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future APPENDIX C Vision 21 Program Plan: Clean Energy Plants for the 21st Century. April, 1999 ACTIVITIES and MILESTONES Activities and Milestones under each program element and subelement are described below. 1. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS a. Market Analysis 1. Conduct market analyses/program reviews. Two market analyses will be conducted: the first in FY01 and the second in FY08. The second study will update developments involving possible restrictions on emission of greenhouse gases and market changes reflecting deregulation of the power industry. These analyses will suggest what features and characteristics of Vision 21 plants are desired by potential purchasers. Variables to be included in the study are plant size, whether fuel and/or chemical co-products are produced and, if so, the identity of the products. The prospects for the use of low-value ''opportunity feedstocks" and biomass in combination with fossil fuel feedstocks will be investigated. The effects of deregulation of the power industry and emergence of distributed generation (DG) power systems on the valuation and use of waste heat will be examined. Markets for the heat will be described in terms of size, distribution, and other salient characteristics, e.g., chemical processing, space heating, and space conditioning. The effect of this market on the size of DG power plants will be developed, as will opportunities for designing larger DG plants to enhance the value of byproduct heat. The need for CO2 collection for sequestration will be

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future treated. The value that the post-regulated power market puts on efficiency, as measured by acceptable capital cost for better performing plants, will be assessed. Adjustments of program emphasis may be made after the market study results are reviewed. FY01-FY02, FY08-FY09 Players: industry (e.g., market research firms), FETC, FE-HQ Milestones: Complete market analyses (FY01, FY08) Complete review of program emphasis in light of market study results (FY02, FY09) b. Process Definition 1. Define high-performance systems and key components. Solicitations will be issued in FY99 and FY06 to tap into industry's best ideas for high-efficiency, high-environmental performance Vision 21 systems for natural gas, coal, and other solid fuels such as biomass, petroleum coke, and municipal and industrial wastes. Contractors will describe their power systems and use computer models to estimate system performance predicated on assumed performance of one or more subsystems or key components that are not yet commercial, but are in development. Contractors will select the subsystems and components that need further development and develop R&D objectives to bring these subsystems and components to commercial readiness. FY99-FY03 FY06-FY10 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Issue solicitations (FY99, FY06) Select subsystems and components to be further developed (FY01, FY08) Complete process definition reports (FY03, FY10) c. Process Evaluation 1. Assess state-of-art of Vision 21 systems. At five-year intervals a formal assessment will be conducted of current and near-term capabilities for building Vision 21 systems. Desired efficiency and pollutant emission targets will be specified. Output from the systems integration program element (IV) will be factored into the evaluation in order to help judge the potential reliability, availability, and maintainability of Vision 21 plants. Increasing the simplicity of system configurations will be a goal, i.e., preference will be given to simpler configurations with comparable performance to more complex configurations. FY04, FY09, FY14. Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones:

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Complete first assessment (FY04) Complete second assessment (FY09) Complete third assessment (FY14) d. Subsystem Performance Requirements 1. Review component and subsystem performance. A program review exercise will be conducted following each power systems state-of-art assessment. Key process components whose performance must be upgraded to permit significant improvement of overall process efficiency and/or economics will be identified. This information will be used to target subsequent solicitations for component development so that funds are directed to process areas representing critical needs. FY05, FY10 Players: FETC, FE-HQ Milestones: Complete first review (FY05) Complete second review (FY10). e. Economic Analysis 1. Estimate costs of Vision 21 systems. An assessment of capital and operating costs of candidate Vision 21 systems will be performed after the two reviews of Vision 21 systems and subsystem/component performance requirements. A final review will be performed in FY14. Cost estimates will emphasize costs of key components, subsystems, and plant sections. The cost updates will reflect information gained during the development phase of key components and subsystems. FY05, FY10, FY14 Players: industry, universities, FETC Milestones: Complete assessment report (FY05) Complete assessment report (FY10) Complete assessment report (FY14) f. Subsystem Data Analysis and Model Development 1. Analyze subsystem data and develop models. Subsystem models will be developed from experimental data and physical principles. State-of-art modeling and graphical display capabilities will be developed. FY02-FY12 Players: industry, universities, national laboratories, FETC, FE-HQ Milestones:

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Complete description of critical units identified in component and subsystem performance reviews (FY06, FY11) Complete development of subsystem models (FY12) II. ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES a. Gas Separation 1. Develop air separation systems for oxygen-enriched air and high-purity oxygen. Air separation systems for the production of 60-80 percent oxygen and high-purity oxygen will be developed, including scaleup and integrated testing of dense ceramic ion transport membranes. In an IGCC plant, oxygen production can account for 15-25 percent of the cost of the plant. Improvements in air separation technology can have a profound impact on the overall economics of IGCC. The availability of low-cost oxygen will also enable the use of oxygen-enriched combustion, leading to the concentration of CO2. FY00-FY08 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Initiate development of promising air enrichment technologies (FY01) Initiate scale-up of ITM air separation technology for high-purity oxygen to 5 tons/day (FY02) Begin ITM-oxygen/turbine integrated operation at 50 tons/day (FY05) Test prototype air enrichment module (FY06) Begin integrated testing of air-enrichment module (FY08) ITM-oxygen technology commercially ready (FY08) 2. Develop membrane technologies for hydrogen separation. This activity addresses the scaleup, and integrated testing of advanced inorganic membranes for high-temperature hydrogen separation from synthesis gas. Low-cost hydrogen would create significant opportunities in a number of areas, including fuel cell power and fuels and chemicals synthesis. FY00-FY10 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Initiate engineering development of high-temperature ceramic membrane technology (FY00) Begin development and testing of modules in prototype unit (FY 04) Demonstrate integrated operation of full-scale modules (FY 06) Ceramic membrane technology commercially ready (FY10)

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future 3. Develop CO2 hydrate-based technology for hydrogen separation. This technology offers a low-temperature approach for the production of high-purity hydrogen from a shifted synthesis gas produced by the gasification of carbon-based feedstocks. The focus will be on the development, scaleup, and integrated testing of CO2 hydrate-based technology for separation of hydrogen from synthesis gas, concentration of CO2, and sequestration. FY00-FY11 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Initiate development of CO2 hydrate-based technology (FY00) Begin testing of small-scale skid-mounted unit at an exiting gasification site (FY03) Initiate scale-up for large-scale module demonstration (FY 05) Begin integration of CO2 sequentration in aquifers (FY 08) Hydrate technology commercially ready (FY11) 4. Produce hydrogen from water dissociation. The dense ceramic proton-transfer membrane developed for separating hydrogen from hot synthesis gas has shown the unique ability to simultaneously decompose water and separate hydrogen. This activity will focus on developing, scaling up, and testing membrane-based technologies for generation and separation of hydrogen from high-temperature steam. FY00-FY15 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Initiate concept and materials development (FY00) Complete bench-scale testing of sub-scale modules (FY08) Complete testing of full-scale module (FY11) Integrate technology with Vision 21 system (e.g., a system in which a combustor and fuel cell utilize the products of the water splitting membrane) (FY15) b. High-Temperature Heat Exchangers 1. Develop alloy-tube heat exchangers. This activity concerns the development and pilot-scale testing of high-temperature heat exchangers containing alloy tubes for heating air and other process fluids to temperatures of 2300°F. FY00-FY04 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Demonstrate 1000 hours performance of pilot-scale air heater with 2300°F capability (FY04)

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future 2. Develop ceramic-tube heat exchangers. High-temperature heat exchangers using ceramic tubes for heating air and other process fluids to temperatures of 3000°F will be developed and tested. FY03-FY10 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Demonstrate 1000 hours performance of pilot-scale air heater with 3000°F capability (FY10) c. Fuel-Flexible Gasification 1. Develop solid fuel feeding technologies. Most gasifiers are designed to process one particular feedstock such as coal or petroleum coke. This limits the gasifier's ability to process low-cost feedstocks that may become available. However, feeding certain feedstocks, including biomass, to a high-pressure gasifier has proved difficult. Because it is unlikely that sufficient crops can be grown in a local area to provide the quantity necessary for a large gasification facility, it is necessary to develop technologies that will permit the use of a wide variety of feedstocks in combination with coal. This activity focuses on the development and testing of advanced technologies for feeding coal and other carbonaceous feedstocks (biomass, MSW) and assessing gasifier performance. FY00-FY06 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Begin development of feed system concepts for co-feeding coal and other carbon-based materials (FY00) Initiate bench-scale development and testing of promising feed systems (FY02) Complete feed system demonstration (FY06) 2. Develop and test advanced gasifiers. The gasifiers currently in operation are expensive, have difficulty processing certain feedstocks, and may not be suitable for many Vision 21 applications. This activity concerns novel gasification concepts including membrane-based gasifiers, advanced gasifiers for processing high-ash coals, transport gasifiers, and catalytic gasifiers. FY00-FY08 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Initiate concept development for advanced gasifiers (FY00) Begin assessment of catalytic gasification and initiate concept development (FY02) Initiate bench-scale development of promising gasification concepts (FY02)

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Complete bench-scale development (FY06) Provide industry with advanced gasifier designs (FY08) 3. Scale-up fluidized bed carbonizer (pyrolyzer). A fluidized bed coal carbonizer (pyrolyzer) for second generation fluidized bed combustion and indirectly fired cycles has been tested at the 5 million Btu/h scale. This activity will scale the carbonizer to 50 million Btu/h and test its performance. FY00-FY07 Players: industry, FETC Milestones: Complete construction and shakedown of scaled carbonizer/pyrolyzer (FY02) Complete integrated testing with pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) and indirectly fired cycle (FY05) Complete higher temperature testing and coproduction assessment (FY07) d. Gas Stream Purification 1. Develop high-temperature particulate filters. Development of low-cost and highly reliable barrier filter systems is necessary to reduce overall power system cost. As currently envisioned, high-temperature hydrogen membrane separation technologies will require filter operation at temperatures over 1300°F. Other Vision 21 concepts will require filters that operate at temperatures as high as 1550°F. This activity focuses on developing and testing to resolve issues related to high-temperature particulate filters for use in advanced gasification and combustion systems. One of the issues facing successful implementation of filter systems under high-temperature combustion conditions is ash bridging. Developing designs that are more tolerant of filter ash bridging, thermal shock and hopper overflow will increase reliability and reduce the O&M costs. Ash bridging with different filter designs will be studied at pilot-scale by varying temperatures and particle size along with coal and sorbent types. New configurations such as large sheets made from lightweight composite materials and thinner wall candle filters, designed to resist ash bridging, will be tested in the laboratory to determine if they can be used at high temperatures under gasification conditions. Successful candidates will then be transaudient to pilot-scale testing. Filter element lifetimes will be established by pilot-scale testing over extended periods under combustion and gasification conditions. Ash and char properties will continue to be assessed since it plays a major role in determining the operational performance of filter systems. As testing and evaluation of pilot-scale filter system progresses, inadequacy in components or the need for ancillary equipment will be identified. FY00-FY04 Players: industry, Power Systems Development Facility, FETC Milestones:

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Develop large oxide ceramic composite sheet filters and large-bore inverted candle filters (FY02) Develop and test at bench-scale safeguard devices for PFBC systems (FY02) Design and test at bench-scale an advanced, low-cost filter concept (FY03) Test at pilot-scale a filter system to further investigate the bridging phenomenon (FY03) Test at pilot-scale advanced filter designs for bridging tolerance (FY04) Test at pilot-scale metal filters under high-temperature gasification conditions (FY04) 2. Develop contaminant removal technology. This activity concerns development, testing and scale-up of chemical contaminant (H2S, NH3, alkalies, chlorides, SOx, NOx, Hg) removal technologies to meet stringent gas quality requirements for advanced combustion systems, synthesis gas conversion, and fuel cell applications. Barrier filter elements offer a tremendous amount of surface area that can be made available for multi-contaminate control. Pilot-scale tests of barrier filter systems integrated with technologies for gas-phase contaminate control will be conducted. The possibility of supporting catalysts or sorbents on the internal porous surface area or internal open area of barrier filter elements will be explored. Injectable sorbents and getters will be assessed for use in barrier filter systems. Sorbents that can be injected upstream of barrier filters systems will be trapped on the dust cake and provide excellent gas and solids contact with long in-system residence time. Disposable sorbents may be considered. New process operations will be required for the integration of gas-phase cleanup and particulate cleanup in the same system or vessel. This effort will assess the need for new equipment and process requirements for the successful integration of gas-phase and particulate cleanup. FY00-FY06 Players: industry, Power Systems Development Facility, FETC Milestones: Develop and test at bench-scale multi-contaminant control filter elements (FY04) Develop and test injectable sorbents for use in hybrid, multi-contaminant control systems (FY04) Integrate gas-phase and particle cleanup systems (FY05) Conduct pilot-scale test of barrier filter systems (FY06) e. Advanced Combustion Systems 1. Investigate "sequestration-ready" combustion systems. Sequestration-ready systems will be developed that use oxygen enrichment and CO2 recycle in order to produce concentrated CO2 exhaust streams. FY02-FY06

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Complete construction of pilot-scale system (FY03) Measure effects on combustion properties and emissions when burning natural gas, coal, and other fuels (FY06) 2. Test integrated components. This activity concerns testing of integrated components for ultra-high efficiency plants based on combinations of advanced pulverized coal (PC) and PFB combustion technologies combined with high-temperature heat exchangers, sorbents, and particulate removal. FY02-FY08 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Complete integration designs (FY05) Complete integrated PC and PFB tests (FY08) 3. Develop sulfur sorbents. High-temperature sorbents will be developed for use in in-situ sulfur removal. FY06-FY08 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Test sorbents at pilot-scale (FY08) f. Fuel-Flexible Turbines 1. Develop advanced combustion turbine technology. This activity concerns R&D to use advanced heat transfer and aerodynamics, and advanced materials, to develop turbine combustion systems that operate under extremely high temperatures (3000°F) and corrosive environments. Assessments will include advanced concepts, systems, and components such as the CO2 Cooperate cycle; hydrogen turbine systems; supercritical steam turbines; ultra-high efficiency simple and combined cycle systems with reheat, intercooling, and optimal integration with gasification; direct combustion and indirect fired power systems; and optimum efficiency thermodynamic concepts. FY00-FY08 Players: industry (especially small business, universities, national laboratories, FETC Milestones: Assess and define concepts for Vision 21 turbine/engine modules (FY03) Complete technology development for advanced turbine designs (FY08)

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future 2. Integrate improvements into existing designs. This activity focuses on improvements to existing platforms such as Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) and Flexible Gas Turbine Systems (FGTS) in order to achieve Vision 21 goals for system performance and cost. Results from the R&D efforts will be incorporated into the designs of existing ATS and other heat engine platforms to make them fuel-flexible, and with enhanced performance to meet Vision 21 goals for system efficiency and cost. Selected platforms/products modules will then be enhanced with the advanced technologies. FY08-FY12 Players: industry (equipment designers), small businesses. Milestones: Select engines/turbines platforms from ATS and FGTS programs for integration into Vision 21 systems (FY08) Design turbine/engines modules for Vision 21 (FY11) Test selected platforms/products modules with advanced technologies developed under activity 1 (FY12) 3. Test/integrate full-scale systems. Advanced turbine/engine modules, developed under activity 2, will be integrated with other systems in Vision 21 configurations. Integrated configurations will be tested through virtual demonstration along with limited testing at a host site to verify the accomplishment of Vision 21 goals. FY13-FY15 Players: FETC, national laboratories, industry (esp. small businesses), suppliers, power generators/marketers, host sites. Milestones: Test advanced Vision 21 components under system operating conditions (FY13) Integrate the advanced components into host Vision 21 plants with Virtual Demonstration and limited host site turbine/engine test sites (FY15) g. Fuel Cells 1. Develop fuel cell/turbine hybrids. This activity focuses on development of ultra-clean high- efficiency fuel cell/turbine electric power plants for the 21st century that can reduce CO2, SOx, and NOx. The objective is to develop near term (60 percent efficiency) and intermediate term (70 percent efficiency) hybrid systems. FY00-FY10 Players: industry (fuel cell developers, turbine manufacturers), FETC. Milestones:

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Issue fuel cell/turbine technology development solicitation for identification, design, and testing of systems of at least 70 percent efficiency (FY00) Demonstrate fuel cell/turbine systems of at least 60 percent efficiency under existing fuel cell development projects (FY03) Demonstrate fuel cell/turbine systems of at least 70 percent efficiency (FY10) 2. Develop 21st century fuel cells. This activity is based on vigorous conceptual study development and peer review; the objective is to develop competitively priced ultra-efficient solid-state high-temperature fuel cell power systems capable of operation on natural gas as well as coal-derived fuels. FY00-FY15 Players: FETC, national laboratories, universities, utilities, industry, and other end-users Milestones: Initiate virtual design activities and material and manufacturing/fabrication research (labs/university-lead) (FY00) Initiate industry participation in manufacturing/fabrication research (FY01) and begin component fabrication (FY05) Initiate small-scale cell testing (FY02) and proof of concept testing (FY05) Demonstrate solid state fuel cell system with 70 percent efficiency (FY10) Demonstrate solid state system with at least 80 percent efficiency (FY15) h. Advanced Fuels and Chemicals Development 1. Develop technology base for early entry co-production plant. The goal of this activity is to develop the information base upon which to design and build an early commercial plant for co-production of fuels and power. The awardees are to complete research necessary for the design of the early entry co-production plant, including all market and economic analyses necessary to capitalize and construct such a plant with private funds. FY00-FY06 Players: industry-led consortia Milestones: Procurement/award (FY00) Complete government funded portion of project (FY04) Complete design (FY06) 2. Design co-production fuel module. The goal of this task is to design a full-scale, early commercial, Vision 21 fuels co-production module. The awardees are to complete the feasibility analyses and research necessary for the design, construction and integration of the fuels/chemicals production portion of the Vision 21 facility. FY07-FY13

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future III. SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGIES a. Materials 1. Select high-temperature heat exchanger materials. Alloys are needed for the fabrication of heat exchangers for high-temperature steam bottoming cycles; ceramics are needed for very high-temperature (2500-3000°F) heat exchangers for indirectly fired cycles and other applications. Exposure and durability tests will be conducted of candidate alloys and ceramics for use in high-temperature heat exchangers in aggressive environments. FY02-FY06 Players: national laboratories, FETC Milestones: Evaluate and select alloys suitable for heat exchangers (FY02) Evaluate and select ceramic composite tube materials (FY06) 2. Develop advanced refractories. Vision 21 plants will require advanced new erosion and corrosion resistant refractories to serve as vessel liners for gasifiers, pyrolyzers, and combustors, and as pipe liners for the hostile high-temperature environments that will be present in these plants. This work will require a cooperative effort between national laboratories developing the materials and the industrial users where testing will be performed. FY00-FY12 Players: national laboratories, industry, FETC Milestones: Complete initial studies and short-term testing of advanced corrosion/erosion resistant refractories (FY02) Initiate long-term testing (FY02) Complete long-term testing of coupons (FY08) Complete long-term test in a gasifier or pyrolyzer (FY12) 3. Develop hydrogen membrane materials. Vision 21 plants that co-produce fuels and chemicals will require an economical source of hydrogen to convert higher carbon feedstocks to these products. Hydrogen separation membranes are the key to filling this need. New materials which are highly permeable and selective to hydrogen will be developed. FY00-FY03 Players: national laboratories Milestones: Begin large-scale testing of improved membrane material (FY01) Complete development and testing of first generation membrane material (FY03)

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future b. Advanced Computational Modeling and Development of Virtual Demonstration Capability 1. Develop scientific and engineering simulation capability. Computational simulation will provide a new and improved capability for the development of Vision 21 technology. The power of computers is rapidly growing and modeling is becoming more accurate. Simulations can provide a very cost effective complement to experimental development. The advanced modeling initiative will assist in the design process by providing physically based simulations of Vision 21 plant components. These transient 3-D simulations will realistically account for all the physically relevant phenomenon such as fluid flow, heat transfer, chemistry, radiation, material stress, etc. EY00-FY14 Players: national laboratories, universities, industry (including firms specializing in simulation software), government agencies, FETC Milestones: Complete advanced fuel cell simulations (FY01) Complete natural gas-fired internal combustion engine simulations (FY01) Complete turbomachinery design simulation (clocking, etc.) (FY02) Complete gasifier simulation (FY03) Complete natural gas-fired turbine combustor simulation (FY05) Complete integrated turbine simulation (turbine and combustor) (FY06) Complete heavy fuel-fired internal combustion engine and turbine simulation (FY08) Complete integrated gasifier, clean-up, combustion simulation (FY09) Complete membrane separation simulation (FY10) Complete integrated Vision 21 plant simulation (FY14) 2. Develop virtual demonstration capability. The concept of the virtual demonstration is to unify all computer related activities of plant design into an integrated suite of codes, which can exchange information easily and accurately. The virtual ''demo" will have a visualization "front end" that is based on 3-D solid modeling. This information can be passed to computer aided design (CAD) software to generate drawing, P&IDs, etc. The geometrical and materials information can also be shared with analysis programs for use with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or structural/stress analysis (computer aided engineering, CAE) software. This will allow "virtual" analysis of the broad details of the simulations to be determined by the process analysis software, which will also be able to communicate within this suite of codes. Another important component of the suite is control analysis. Underlying this capability will be an information management system that will allow the accurate transfer of information between components. These capabilities will be implemented so that they can be accessed over the

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future World Wide Web, to facilitate "virtual" (in another sense of the word) collaboration. This activity will progress on two tracks. One will be the development of the virtual demonstration capability, the infrastructure of the project. Rapidly advancing computational and internet technologies will be exploited. Commercially developed software capabilities will be tailored to apply to programmatic objectives. A parallel track will be the development of simulation capabilities which will "mirror" the enabling technologies in the Vision 21 program. Each of these components of Vision 21 will be supported by the simulations capabilities of the virtual demo. The two tracks can progress in parallel. However, as the basic capabilities become more completely developed, the fidelity and versatility of the simulations in each technology will improve. FY00-FY15 Players: industrial/architect & engineering firms, turbine manufacturers, FETC Milestones: Develop 3-D solid modeling capability (FY00) Develop visualization capability (FY01) Develop computer-aided design capability (FY01) Implement computational/communication resources (FY02) Develop structural analysis capability (FY02) Introduce concurrent engineering (FY02) Complete initial information management system (FY03) Complete process analysis models (FY03) Complete control analysis models (FY05) Integrate virtual demo capability with scientific and engineering simulations (FY05) Integration with design and construction management (FY09) Develop advanced information management system (FY10) Introduce advanced concurrent engineering (FY12) Demonstrate virtual operations (FY14) c. Advanced Controls and Sensors 1. Develop advanced instrumentation and controls: Vision 21 plants will be a highly integrated complexes of advanced subsystems. Control of these plants will require sophisticated new algorithms which utilize advanced computer technology to control and optimize the plant efficiency and emissions performance. New sensors and measurement techniques will be needed to measure contaminants (including regulated pollutants) to ultra-low levels. These sensors will need to withstand very harsh environments (high temperatures and corrosive fluids) that will be present in these plants. FY00-FY10 Players: industry

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Milestones: Define specifications for advanced instruments (FY00) Complete designs and fabrication of prototypes (FY02) Complete first generation beta testing (FY05) Complete development of sensors and control systems (FY10) d. Environmental Control Technology 1. Develop advanced low-NOx combustion technologies. The goal is to develop combustion technology capable of meeting projected environmental regulations for advanced power systems. EPA has established a 0.15 lbs/million Btu limit for the eastern U.S. during the summertime ozone season (May-Sept.). In future years, NOx emission limits may tighten further so low emissions from the combustion system are necessary even with use of post-combustion NOx controls like SCR. Of particular interest is using O2 to stabilize the flame closer to the burner tip. FY00-FY07 Players: industry (equipment suppliers) Milestones: Issue solicitation. (FY99) Identify low-NOx combustion concepts (FY02) Complete pilot-scale tests (FY05) Complete designs for commercial systems (FY07) 2. Develop advanced PM2.5 control technology. Full implementation of the PM2.5 standards is set for the 2008-2012 time frame. Cost effective technology is needed for compliance. This activity will focus on developing technology that will reduce both primary and secondary (from precursors NOx and SOx) PM2.5 emissions from Vision 21 plants to negligible levels. FY00-FY07 Players: industry (equipment suppliers, power generators, research organizations) Milestones: Initiate PM2.5 control technology development R&D (FY99) Complete studies of primary PM2.5 formation (FY01) Complete R&D on control of NOx precursors (FY03) Complete PM2.5 control technology development (FY07) 3. Develop coal combustion by-products (CCB) management technology. This activity will develop technology to manage coal combustion by-products from Vision 21 plants that utilize combustion subsystems. Efforts will be made to minimize the volume of CCBs through the use of industrial ecology principles (see program element IVc). FY04-FY08

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Players: industry (including construction, cement manufacturers) Milestones: Complete survey of technologies for existing plants (FY04) Identify technologies for managing CCBs from advanced plants (FY06) Integrate CCB technology into Vision 21 plant design (FY08) 4. Devise revolutionary approaches to CO2 capture and separation. While evolutionary approaches to CO2 separation will continue to be explored, Vision 21 will require revolutionary approaches that are more effective and lower in cost. New CO2 capture and separation concepts will be developed, leading to systems that will produce a CO2-rich stream suitable for sequestration. FY00-FY10 Players: industry, national laboratories, universities, FETC Milestones: Initiate revolutionary CO2 capture and separations R&D program (FY00) Complete small-scale testing of advanced concepts (FY04) Complete integrated testing (FY06) Develop Vision 21 design for commercial application (FY10) 5. Integrate energy systems with terrestrial sinks. Coal suppliers and other energy producers can gain carbon offsets by integrating their operations with enhanced terrestrial carbon sink concepts. Non-productive land owned by energy producers can be used to grow biomass which, in turn, can be used as an energy source (e.g., coal biomass co-firing). Special biomass crops can be used to convert poor soils, such as reclaimed coal-stripped lands, into productive energy crops. The focus of this activity is to develop and implement partnerships with energy suppliers and biomass producers. FY00-FY05 Players: industry (including biomass marketers), national laboratories, government agencies, FETC Milestones: Establish partnerships between energy suppliers and biomass producers (FY01) Complete assessment of viability of carbon offsets (FY05) e. Advanced Manufacturing and Modularization 1. Develop improved manufacturing techniques. Improved manufacturing techniques are needed to reduce costs and improve the quality of components. This has already been accomplished in the emission controls industry for flue gas scrubbers and has played a major role in reducing the cost of these systems. Similar improvements are needed in Vision 21 components and subsystems such

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future as fuel cells, heat exchangers, gas separation membranes, and sensors. Modular design will maximize shop fabrication and minimize field construction while maintaining flexibility in the design and deployment of Vision 21 plants. This activity will involve studies to identify ways in which key components can be manufactured more efficiently and cheaply. FY00-FY10 Players: industry (fuel cell developers, turbine manufacturers, equipment vendors) Milestones: Establish a consortium for identifying improved manufacturing techniques (FY00) Identify primary components and areas for improvement (FY02) Develop improved manufacturing techniques (FY08) Complete testing of selected manufacturing techniques (FY10) IV. SYSTEMS INTEGRATION a. Systems Engineering 1. Develop preliminary definition of systems engineering issues. This activity will address component and subsystem compatibility issues. System configurations that achieve Vision 21 efficiency targets will be examined in the context of identifying factors that can affect compatibility, operability, and system cost. Potential issues include linking gasifiers and combustion turbines, turbines and fuel cells, fuel cells and combustion systems, and gas cleanup devices with other subsystems. Early scheduling of this activity will allow necessary subsystem design modifications, including application of industrial ecology principles, to be made early in the development process, when changes can be made more easily and cost effectively. FY00-FY02 Players: industry, universities, national labs, FETC Milestones: Develop system configurations for systems engineering analysis (FY00) Complete definition of issues (FY02) 2. Develop preliminary subsystem design modifications and subsystem linkages and interconnects. Designs of subsystems and major components will be examined and modified in order to ensure compatibility. Physical linkages and interconnects will be designed. Modularity and cost minimization will be emphasized. FY03-FY06 Players: industry Milestones:

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Complete preliminary design modifications for major components and subsystems (FY04) Complete preliminary designs for linkages and interconnects (FY06) 3. Define systems engineering issues. The issues identified in activity 1 will be revisited using the most recent Vision 21 system configurations and subsystem designs. FY07-FY09 Players: industry, universities, national labs, FETC Milestones: Complete update of systems engineering issues (FY09) 4. Develop subsystem design modifications and subsystem linkages and interconnects. The design modifications developed in activity 2 will be revisited and updated. FY10-FY12 Players: industry Milestones: Complete design modifications for major components, subsystems, and linkages and interconnects (FY12) 5. Apply virtual demonstration techniques. The virtual demonstration capability developed in program element IIIb will be applied to confirm the viability of Vision 21 system designs. The focus will be on ensuring that Vision 21 key components and subsystems can be fabricated and assembled using accepted manufacturing and construction techniques, including advanced manufacturing technology developed in program element IIIe. FY12-FY14 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Complete virtual demonstrations of key components and subsystems (FY13) Complete virtual demonstrations of Vision 21 systems (FY14) b. Dynamic Response and Control 1. Model dynamic response of Vision 21 subsystems. The dynamic response of Vision 21 subsystems to changes in load and other operating parameters will be modeled. Available models (e.g., ProTrax) will be used where appropriate; some subsystems models will need to be developed from first principles. Models will be validated using data from pilot- and full-scale operating subsystems (e.g., gasifiers, fuel cells, turbines). FY02-FY06

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Develop dynamic response models for Vision 21 subsystems (FY04) Validate subsystem models (FY06) 2. Model dynamic response of Vision 21 systems. Models developed in activity 1 will be combined in order to model combinations of subsystems and complete Vision 21 system configurations. Startup, shutdown, and other system transient events will be modeled and studied. Models will be validated to the extent possible using data from pilot- and full-scale systems. FY06-FY10 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Develop dynamic response models for Vision 21 system configurations (FY08) Validate system models (FY10) 3. Develop control strategy for Vision 21 plants. This activity will investigate the complex control theory necessary to operate integrated Vision 21 plants. A process control strategy for Vision 21 plants will be developed using the results of activities 1 and 2. Software will be developed that can be used with digital process control systems. FY08-FY12 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Develop Vision 21 process control software (FY12) 4. Select and develop process control hardware for Vision 21 plants. State-of-the-art control instrumentation and control hardware will be studied to determine the reliability, availability, and maintainability necessary for operation in the complex, integrated environment of Vision 21 plants. New process control hardware measuring devices and sensors (e.g., flow, temperature, and chemical composition) and control hardware (e.g., valves, pressure controllers) will be developed and tested as needed. FY08-12 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Identify existing process control hardware appropriate for Vision 21 (FY08) Develop and test new sensors and control hardware (FY12)

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future c. Industrial Ecology 1. Apply industrial ecology principles to Vision 21 system configurations. Vision 21 system configurations will be evaluated and modified, if necessary, to comply with industrial ecology principles. The goal will be to recycle, or utilize in some other manner, all process effluents that would otherwise be regarded as waste streams. Results of this activity will be input to activity IVa3 (systems engineering issues). FY06-08 Players: industry, national labs, universities, FETC Milestones: Complete industrial ecology analysis (FY08) V. VISION 21 PLANT DESIGNS a. Designs for Components and Subsystems 1. Select components and subsystems. Key components (e.g., heat exchangers, pumps, compressors) and subsystems (e.g., turbines, furnaces, gas separators) will be selected and engineering designs will be prepared. These components and subsystems and will be the key building blocks of Vision 21 systems. Designs modularity will be emphasized. The intent is for designers of future Vision 21 plants to be able to select those modules that would be appropriate for the intended plant configuration. Component sizes and performance requirements will be defined. FY03-FY05 Players: industry, FETC Milestones: Select component and subsystems for design studies. (FY04) Define performance requirements. (FY05) 2. Design modular components and subsystems. Engineering designs will be prepared for modular components and subsystems that can be used in various types of plant configurations. The designs will be reviewed periodically to incorporate new R&D results and updated when necessary. Design and fabrication costs will be estimated. FY05-FY12 Players: industry, universities, national labs, FETC Milestones: Complete initial component and subsystem designs (FY07) Review and update designs (FY10) Complete component and subsystem designs and cost analysis (FY12)

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future b. Designs for Prototype Plants 1. Select prototype plant configurations. Several (2-3) configurations for prototype Vision 21 plants will be selected based on the results of market analyses. Updates will be made after the second market study (see activity Ia1). Sites will be selected and the plant feedstocks, products, configuration, and size will be based on market requirements. Systems integration techniques developed in Program Element IV will be used extensively in the final plant designs. FY04-FY09 Players: industry, FETC Milestones: Select initial prototype configurations (FY05) Select final prototype plant configurations (FY09) 2. Design prototype plants. Engineering designs will be prepared for the Vision 21 plants selected in activity 1. Prototype plants are small, first-of-a-kind, commercial plants intended to show industry that such plants can be built and operated reliably, safely, and economically. Develop comprehensive equipment lists and prepare cost estimates showing costs for major plant components, subsystems, plant sections, and the complete plant. FY10-FY14 Players: industry, universities, national labs, FETC Milestones: Complete prototype plant designs (FY14) Complete cost analyses (FY14) c. Designs for Commercial Plants 1. Select commercial plant configurations. Several (2-3) configurations for commercial-scale Vision 21 plants will be selected based on the results of market analyses. Sites will be selected and the plant feedstocks, products, configuration, and size will be based on market requirements. Systems integration techniques developed in Program Element IV will be used extensively in the final plant designs. FY05-FY10 Players: industry, FETC Milestones: Select initial commercial plant configurations (FY06) Select final commercial plant configurations (FY10) 2. Design commercial plants. Engineering designs will be prepared for the Vision 21 plants selected in activity 1. Comprehensive equipment lists and cost

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Vision 21: Fossil Fuel Options for the Future estimates showing costs for major plant components, subsystems, plant sections, and the complete plant will be prepared. FY11-FY15 Players: industry, universities, national labs, FETC Milestones: Complete commercial plant designs (FY15) Complete cost analyses (FY15) d. Virtual Demonstration Capability 1. Simulate component/subsystem performance. The virtual demonstration capability developed in program element IIIb and as part of the enabling technologies (program elements IIa-h.) activities will be used to simulate the performance of components and subsystems of Vision 21 plants. FY08-FY10 Players: industry, universities, national labs, FETC Milestones: Conduct virtual demonstrations of components and subsystems (FY10) 2. Simulate commercial-scale plant performance. Virtual demonstrations of commercial-scale Vision 21 plants will be conducted. These demonstrations will illustrate equipment configuration and orientation and include details of plant operation, including dynamic response to changes in load, variations in feedstock properties, changes in component or subsystem operation, and upset conditions. FY12-FY15 Players: industry, universities, national labs, FETC Milestones: Conduct virtual demonstration of complete Vision 21 plant (FY15)