TABLE ES-1 Goals of the Vision 21 Program



Efficiency-Electricity Generation

60 percent for coal-based systems (based on fuel HHV);a 75 percent for natural gas-based systems (LHV)b with no credit for cogenerated steam.

Efficiency-Combined Electricity/Heat

Overall thermal efficiency above 85 percent; also meets above efficiency goals for electricity.

Efficiency-Fuels Only Plant

When producing fuels, such as H2 or liquid transportation fuels alone from coal, 75 percent fuels utilization efficiency (LHV).


Near zero emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, trace elements, and organic compounds; 40–50 percent reduction in CO2 emissions by efficiency improvement; 100 percent reduction with sequestration.


Aggressive targets for capital and operating costs and RAM;c products of Vision 21 plants must be cost-competitive with market clearing prices when they are commercially deployed.


Major benefits (e.g., improved gasifiers and combustors, gas separation membranes) begin by 2006 or earlier; designs for most Vision 21 subsystems and modules available by 2012; Vision 21 commercial plant designs available by 2015.

a HHV = higher heating value

b LHV = lower heating value

c RAM = reliability, availability, maintenance

Source: Adapted from DOE, 1999.

coproducing electric power, process heat, and high-value fuels and chemicals. The major goals of the program are shown in Table ES-1.


The overall goal of the Vision 21 Program is to develop flexible components and subsystems for modular-designed plants capable of using multiple feedstocks or producing multiple products. The program focuses on the elements that will be common to all of the facilities under consideration:

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